Exposing Digital Forgeries in Complex Lighting Environments

@article{Johnson2007ExposingDF,
  title={Exposing Digital Forgeries in Complex Lighting Environments},
  author={Micah K. Johnson and Hany Farid},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security},
  year={2007},
  volume={2},
  pages={450-461}
}
The availability of sophisticated digital imaging technology has given rise to digital forgeries that are increasing in sophistication and frequency. We describe a technique for exposing such fakes by detecting inconsistencies in lighting. We show how to approximate complex lighting environments with a low-dimensional model and, further, how to estimate the model's parameters from a single image. Inconsistencies in the lighting model are th.en used as evidence of tampering. 
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