Exponential growth of distance between nearby rays due to multiple gravitational scatterings

@inproceedings{Fukushige1994ExponentialGO,
  title={Exponential growth of distance between nearby rays due to multiple gravitational scatterings},
  author={Toshiyuki Fukushige and Junichiro Makino},
  year={1994}
}
We give an estimate of the relative error in the angular measurement of observations for high redshift objects induced by gravitational scatterings (lensing). Gunn (1967) concluded that the gravitational scatterings by galaxies induce the relative error of a few percent in the observations for objects at $z=1$. This estimate has been considered as a fundamental limitation of accuracy of the angular measurements in the observational cosmology. In multiple graviational scatterings, bending angle… CONTINUE READING

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Figure legend Figure 1 The change in angle between two rays emitted from the observer. The angles

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