Exploring the lower settlements of Iron Age capitals in Anatolia and Syria

  title={Exploring the lower settlements of Iron Age capitals in Anatolia and Syria},
  author={James F. Osborne},
  pages={90 - 107}
Abstract The capital cities of early Iron Age Syria and Anatolia have been extensively excavated, but their lower towns—where most of the populace actually lived—remain under-explored. In 2014, an intensive surface survey was undertaken across the 16ha lower town of Tell Tayinat, capital city of the Iron Age kingdom of Patina, in what is now southern Turkey. Results indicate clear spatial distinction between dense and sparsely occupied zones, an uneven distribution of wealth and localised craft… 

Architectural Assemblages: The Northwest Complex at Zincirli

  • D. Kertai
  • Sociology
    Cambridge Archaeological Journal
  • 2018
The Northwest Complex is one of several known Syro-Anatolian elite residences on the citadel of Zincirli. Syro-Anatolian elite residences such as the Northwest Complex are generally described with

The Development of the Southeast Lower Town of Sirkeli Höyük

Abstract The site of Sirkeli Höyük in the province of Adana in modern Turkey is one of the largest settlement mounds in Plain Cilicia. In 2012, a geophysical survey revealed that the ancient

Urban Built Environments in Early 1st Millennium b.c.e. Syro-Anatolia: Results of the Tayinat Archaeological Project, 2004–2016

The archaeological site of Tell Tayinat in the province of Hatay in southern Turkey was the principal regional center in the Amuq Plain and North Orontes Valley during the Early Bronze and Iron Ages.

The city of Hartapu: results of the Türkmen-Karahöyük Intensive Survey Project

Abstract The Türkmen-Karahöyük Intensive Survey Project (TISP) has identified the archaeological site of Türkmen-Karahöyük on the Konya plain as a previously unknown Iron Age capital city in the

Ebla’s Hegemony and Its Impact on the Archaeology of the Amuq Plain in the Third Millennium BCE

This dissertation investigates the emergence of Ebla as a regional state in northwest Syria during the Early Bronze Age and provides a characterization of Ebla that emphasizes its hegemonic rather

Beyond megadrought and collapse in the Northern Levant: The chronology of Tell Tayinat and two historical inflection episodes, around 4.2ka BP, and following 3.2ka BP

A large set of radiocarbon data is reported and the stratigraphic sequence using Bayesian chronological modelling is incorporated to create a refined timeframe for Tell Tayinat and a secure basis for analysis of the site with respect to its broader regional context and climate history.

Urban organization under empire: Iron Age Sam’al (Zincirli, Turkey) from royal to provincial capital

Abstract Excavations of residential areas in the north lower town of Zincirli, Turkey, the Iron Age Aramaean capital of Sam’al, show a change, in the second-half of the 8th century BC, toward a



Carchemish ša kišad puratti

Perhaps no other site in the region of northern Syria and south-eastern Anatolia played as important a role in the history of the early first millennium B.C. as Carchemish, “on the banks of the

Settlement History and Urban Planning at Zincirli Höyük, Southern Turkey

This paper presents results of geophysical survey at Zincirli Hoyuk, a 40-hectare site in southern Turkey dating to the early first millennium bc. The site’s lower town offers ideal circumstances for

NEO-HITTITES IN THE "LAND OF PALISTIN": Renewed Investigations at Tell Taʿyinat on the Plain of Antioch

The collapse of the centralized state bureaucracies of Bronze Age civilization in the late-second millennium B.C.E. and the subsequent emergence of the small nationstates of biblical fame during the

An Eternal Feast at Samʾal: The New Iron Age Mortuary Stele from Zincirli in Context

The recent discovery of a new Iron Age mortuary stele bearing a relief image and inscription in its original archaeological context at Zincirli has great potential to contribute to a better

The Spatial Dimensions of Early Mesopotamian Urbanism: The Tell Brak Suburban Survey, 2003-2006

  and   The 2003–2006 Suburban Survey at Tell Brak investigated the spatial dimensions of the city’s urban origins and evolution via intensive systematic surface survey. This

Syro-Hittite Monumental Art and the Archaeology of Performance: The Stone Reliefs at Carchemish and Zincirli in the Earlier First Millennium BCE

The ceremonial centers of the Syro-Hittite city-states (1200-700 BC) were lavishly decorated with large-scale, open-air figurative reliefs - an original and greatly influential artistic tradition.

Cities and the Shaping of Memory in the Ancient Near East: Introduction

This book investigates the founding and building of cities in the ancient Near East. The creation of new cities was imagined as an ideological project or a divine intervention in the political

Preliminary Report on the Excavations at Tell Rifa'at

Tell Rifa‘at, in the ‘Azaz Casa, is situated in the midst of the village of the same name, thirty-five kilometres to the north of Aleppo in the Syrian Region of the United Arab Republic. The modern