In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the use of a 'core' set of treatment outcomes was pioneered to ensure that the same outcomes are measured across all clinical trials to enable comparison of trial results. However, studies have not investigated the influence of patients' ethnic and cultural backgrounds on treatment outcomes. This pilot study identified 74 treatment outcomes from female Punjabi RA patients, including 21 new ones that were not identified in previous research with white British RA patients. The social impact of RA created significant additional burden for these Punjabi women, with 'less stigmatisation' and 'improved ability to carry out family duties' generated as important new outcomes. This study illustrates a need to address cultural validity in outcome elicitation and prioritisation, to ensure that interventions are evaluated using criteria that have meaning for people with that condition.