Exploring the Articulatory Loop

  title={Exploring the Articulatory Loop},
  author={Alan D Baddeley and Vivien Lewis and Giuseppe Vallar},
  journal={Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology},
  pages={233 - 252}
A series of five experiments explore the influence of articulatory suppression on immediate memory for auditorily presented items with a view to testing the revised concept of an articulatory loop. Experiments 1, 2 and 3 demonstrate that the phonological similarity effect is not abolished by articulatory suppression, whether this occurs only at input or at both input and recall. Experiments 4 and 5 show that the tendency for long words to be less well remembered than short is abolished by… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Articulatory rehearsal and phonological storage in working memory
The results indicate that the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of spoken material within the phonological store do not depend on a process of articulatory rehearsal.
Is the Phonological Loop Articulatory or Auditory
It is tentatively concluded that the interpretation suggesting output-input connectivity is supported, which indicates that processes in language production can impact directly on processes inlanguage perception.
Articulatory rehearsal is more than refreshing memory traces.
Results suggest that an additional rehearsal helps to stabilize phonological representations for a short period, and the analyses of serial position curves suggested that the frequency of the articulation affected the durability of the phonological representation.
Duration estimation and the phonological loop: Articulatory suppression and irrelevant sounds
Findings are taken to show that time estimation is mediated by phonological working memory and the involvement of an active articulatory rehearsal process.
A visuospatial “phonological loop” in working memory: Evidence from American Sign Language
Results indicate a configuration of components similar to the phonological loop for speech, suggesting that working memory can develop a language-based rehearsal loop in the visuospatial modality.
Phonological recoding under articulatory suppression
An experiment in which participants performed immediate serial recall of visually presented words with or without articulatory suppression, while also performing homophone or rhyme detection, found rhyme and homophone detection was well above chance.
The articulatory determinants of verbal sequence learning.
These results are the first to suggest that verbal sequence learning, and not only verbal serial short-term memory (STM) performance, may be explicable by recourse to general-purpose articulatory and perceptual processes.
The phonological store of working memory: is it phonological and is it a store?
Although evidence for an interaction among modality, phonological similarity, and articulatory suppression was found, its presence could be diminished by a suffix, which is an acoustic, not a phonological factor.


Reading for Meaning: The Effects of Concurrent Articulation*
Six experiments are reported which examine the assertion that phonological recoding for the purpose of lexical access in visual word recognition is prevented or impaired by concurrent articulation
The Role of Subvocalisation in Reading
A series of experiments explored the role of subvocalisation in fluent reading. Experiment I showed that when subjects were required to suppress articulation while reading, their ability to detect
Dementia and the functioning of the articulatory loop system
Abstract This study explored the functioning of the articulatory loop system in patients at the early stages of Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type. The results showed that, in comparison to
Working Memory and Reading
It is argued that the articulatory loop plays an important role in learning to read, but is less essential for fluent reading, and experiments are presented which show that objects may read and comprehend statements without utilisation of the articulation loop.
Short-term memory processes in the deaf.
  • R. Conrad
  • Psychology
    British journal of psychology
  • 1970
Detailed error analysis suggested a dichotomous classification of subjects into those primarily relying on artioulatory coding (A group) and those relying on some other mediating code which could depend on shape (non-A group), which correlated significantly with teachers' ratings of speech quality.
Acoustic confusions in immediate memory.
Sequences of 6 letters of the alphabet were visually presented for immediate recall to 387 subjects. Errors showed a systematic relationship to original stimuli. This is held to meet a requirement of
Effect of distraction on reading versus listening.
The selective interference effect is ascribed to the relative difficulty of reading over listening rather than to the importance of speech recoding in reading.