Exploitation of intracellular pH gradients in the cellular delivery of macromolecules.

Most cellular components such as the cytoplasm, endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, mitochondria, and nuclei are known to maintain their own characteristic pH values. These pH values range from as low as 4.5 in the lysosome to about 8.0 in the mitochondria. Given these proton gradients around a neutral pH, weak acids, and bases with a… (More)