Explicit self-criticism and implicit self-regard: Evaluating self and friend in two cultures

  title={Explicit self-criticism and implicit self-regard: Evaluating self and friend in two cultures},
  author={Shinobu Kitayama and Yukiko Uchida},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Social Psychology},
Abstract Past research indicates that people in some Asian cultures (e.g., Japan) often explicitly evaluate themselves negatively while implicitly maintaining positive self-evaluations. Two studies provided evidence for the hypothesis that this pattern of explicit and implicit self-evaluations is quite common even outside of Asia, as long as the evaluations are assessed in the context of close, interdependent social relations. Thus, Study 1 applied a modified version of Implicit Association… Expand

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