Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark

  title={Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark},
  author={Baland Jalal and Joseph M. Simons-Rudolph and Bamo Jalal and Devon E. Hinton},
  journal={Transcultural Psychiatry},
  pages={158 - 175}
This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP… 

Tables from this paper

Rates and Characteristics of Sleep Paralysis in the General Population of Denmark and Egypt

Examination of rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt.

Beliefs about sleep paralysis in Turkey: Karabasan attack

The Karabasan constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in Turkey that is rooted in Turkish folk tradition and applied various supernatural and religious methods to prevent future SP attacks.

Sleep paralysis in Italy: Frequency, hallucinatory experiences, and other features

It is found that Italians from the general population reported high lifetime rates of SP, prolonged duration of immobility during the event, and great fear of the experience, all of which were particularly elevated as compared to cultures where there are no such elaborate traditions of SP.

Cultural Explanations of Sleep Paralysis in Italy: The Pandafeche Attack and Associated Supernatural Beliefs

A multilayered cultural interpretation of SP is found, namely the Pandafeche attack, associated with various supernatural beliefs, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, which constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP.

Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry)

As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry, and the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with Symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety.

Prevalence and Clinical Picture of Sleep Paralysis in a Polish Student Sample

It is shown that a significant proportion of students experience recurrent SP and that this phenomenon is associated with fear and physical discomfort, and the scale of the phenomenon requires a deeper analysis.

Sleep Paralysis and Extraordinary Experiences1

We investigated sleep paralysis (SP) with an online questionnaire. Our sample consisted of 380 participants who experienced at least one SP. In this paper, we present the relation of SP to

Association of Sleep Paralysis with PTSD Symptoms, Pathological Worry and Perceived Stress

  • Azal Ikhlaq
  • Psychology, Medicine
    International Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Sciences
  • 2021
In the current study, we inspected the correlation between Sleep Paralysis and anxiety symptoms among undergraduate medical students of Pakistan. It was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study.

Sleep paralysis, as a neglected disease, and its treatment in iranian ancient medicine

Reducing caffeine and nicotine intake may also prove helpful in lowering the likelihood of sleep paralysis occurring and many studies have confirmed that the avoiding sleeping on their back reducing the chance ofsleep paralysis.

What do we know about sleep paralysis?

The aim of this work is to present the most important information about the disorder known as sleep paralysis - its history, cultural context, pathophysiology, prevalence, symptomatology, coexistence with other somatic and mental disorders as well as diagnostics and available forms of prevention and treatment.



Sleep paralysis in the elderly

In concordance with the rapid eye movement (REM)/wakefulness dissociation hypothesis of SP, those elderly with GO+ experiences also had more frequent nocturnal sleep disturbances and a family history was reported in 10% of subjects.

Prevalence and Illness Beliefs of Sleep Paralysis among Chinese Psychiatric Patients in China and the United States

The prevalence of sleep paralysis among Chinese patients in a psychiatric out-patient clinic in Boston and Shanghai was found to be 26.2% and 23.3%, respectively, and the endorsement of supernatural explanations for SP is rare among contemporary Chinese patients.

High prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis: kanashibari phenomenon in Japan.

In Japan, a set of experiences called kanashibari is considered identical with isolated sleep paralysis, and the peak occurred at an earlier age in women subjects than in men subjects.

Sleep paralysis in Chinese: ghost oppression phenomenon in Hong Kong.

There was no sex difference in the prevalence, and the peak age of onset was at the range of 17-19 for both sexes; a strong familial association was found and 20% of subjects reported a positive family history.

Sleep Paralysis as Spiritual Experience

The article examines the way that conventional modern views of spiritual experience, combined with medical ideas that labeled ‘direct’ spiritual experiences as psychopathological, and mainstream religious views of such experiences as heretical if not pathological, suppressed the report and discussion of these experiences in modern society.

Culture and Sleep Paralysis

The articles in this special issue of Transcultural Psychiatry examine cultural variations in sleep paralysis – a phenomenon that is both little known and remarkably common.

‘The Ghost Pushes You Down’: Sleep Paralysis-Type Panic Attacks in a Khmer Refugee Population

The Cambodian panic response to SP seems to be greatly heightened by elaborate cultural ideas - with SP generating concerns about physical status, ‘good luck’ status,‘bad luck' status, sorcery assault, and ghost assault - and by trauma associations to the figure seen in SP.

The Assessment of the Phenomenology of Sleep Paralysis: The Unusual Sleep Experiences Questionnaire (USEQ)

A pilot study with the brief assessment instrument, the Unusual Sleep Experiences Questionnaire (USEQ), found that it was easily understood by the participants and was associated with anxiety, with one quarter reporting at least one lifetime episode of SP.

Sleep Paralysis, Sexual Abuse, and Space Alien Abduction

Sleep paralysis accompanied by hypnopompic (‘upon awakening’) hallucinations is an often-frightening manifestation of discordance between the cognitive/perceptual and motor aspects of rapid eye

Relations among hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences associated with sleep paralysis

Regression analyses lend support to the hypothesis that sensed presence and fear are primitive associates of sleep paralysis and contribute to the elaboration of further hallucinoid experiences, especially those involving visual experiences.