There is substantial variation across the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) grantees in terms of the proportion of the eligible population served by the grantees each year (hereafter referred to as the screening proportion). In this paper, we assess program- and state-level factors to better understand the reason for this variation in breast and cervical cancer screening proportions across the NBCCEDP grantees. We constructed a longitudinal data set, consisting of data from NBCCEDP grantees for each of the three study years (program-years 2006–2007, 2008–2009, and 2009–2010). We performed multivariate analysis to explain the variation in breast and cervical cancer screening proportions across the grantees. The program-level factors studied were the total federal funds received, average cost of screening women by grantee, and the overall organizational structure. The state-level variables included were urban versus rural mix, access to care, and the size of the eligible population. Of the 48 grantees included in the study, those that serve larger populations, as measured by the size of the population and the percentage of women eligible for services, had lower screening proportions. Higher average cost of service delivery was also associated with lower screening proportions. In addition, grantees whose populations were more concentrated in urban areas had lower screening proportions. Overall, the average cost of screening, the overall size of the population eligible, and the concentration of population in urban areas all had a negative relationship to the proportion of eligible women screened by NBCCEDP grantees.