Explaining the effectiveness of fear extinction through latent-cause inference

@article{Song2021ExplainingTE,
  title={Explaining the effectiveness of fear extinction through latent-cause inference},
  author={Mingyu Song and Carolyn E. Jones and Marie H Monfils and Yael Niv},
  journal={Neurons, Behavior, Data analysis, and Theory},
  year={2021}
}
Acquiring fear responses to predictors of aversive outcomes is crucial for survival. At the same time, it is important to be able to modify such associations when they are maladaptive, for instance in treating anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Standard extinction procedures can reduce fear temporarily, but with sufficient delay or with reminders of the aversive experience, fear often returns. The latent-cause inference framework explains the return of fear by presuming that animals learn a… 

Figures from this paper

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 59 REFERENCES

Gradual extinction prevents the return of fear: implications for the discovery of state

TLDR
In two Pavlovian fear-conditioning experiments, it is shown that gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli, rather than eliminating them abruptly, prevents the recovery of fear.

Different mechanisms of fear extinction dependent on length of time since fear acquisition.

TLDR
Data support a model in which different neural mechanisms are recruited depending on the temporal delay of fear extinction, and suggest that extinction initiated shortly following fear acquisition preferentially engages depotentiation/"unlearning," whereas extinction initiated at longer delays recruits a different mechanism.

Building physiological toughness: Some aversive events during extinction may attenuate return of fear.

Individual differences in learning predict the return of fear

Using a laboratory analogue of learned fear (Pavlovian fear conditioning), we show that there is substantial heterogeneity across individuals in spontaneous recovery of fear following extinction

Shifting from fear to safety through deconditioning-update

TLDR
The results indicate that deconditioning-update is more effective than traditional extinction in reducing fear responses; moreover, such effects are long lasting and resistant to renewal and spontaneous recovery.

Rethinking Extinction

Context, learning, and extinction.

TLDR
It is shown that online Bayesian inference within a model that assumes an unbounded number of latent causes can characterize a diverse set of behavioral results from such manipulations, some of which pose problems for the model of Redish et al. (2007).

Gradual extinction reduces reinstatement

TLDR
The results suggest that the GE process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction, and significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for SCR or contingency ratings.
...