Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition.

  title={Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition.},
  author={Karin Ericsson and Neil Charness},
  journal={American Psychologist},
Counter to the common belief that expert performance reflects innate abilities and capacities, recent research in different domains of expertise has shown that expert performance is predominantly mediated by acquired complex skills and physiological adaptations. For elite performers, supervised practice starts at very young ages and is maintained at high daily levels for more than a decade. The effects of extended deliberate practice are more far-reaching than is commonly believed. Performers… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

The Scientific Study of Expert Levels of Performance: general implications for optimal learning and creativity 1
Recent research in many different domains of expertise has shown that the large differences in performance between experts and novices are frequently reproducible under standardized conditions andExpand
Expert and exceptional performance: evidence of maximal adaptation to task constraints.
Many of the mechanisms of superior expert performance serve the dual purpose of mediating experts' current performance and of allowing continued improvement of this performance in response to informative feedback during practice activities. Expand
Limits on the Predictive Power of Domain-Specific Experience and Knowledge in Skilled Performance
It is clear from decades of research that, to a very large degree, success in music, games, sports, science, and other complex domains reflects knowledge and skills acquired through experience.Expand
The roles of deliberate practice and innate ability in developing expertise: evidence and implications
The relationship between DP and an innate individual ability, working memory (WM) capacity, is reviewed to illustrate how both DP and individual ability predict expert performance. Expand
Sight-Reading Skill : The Role of Working Memory Capacity Deliberate Practice Is Necessary but Not Sufficient to Explain Individual Differences in Piano
Deliberate practice—that is, engagement in activities specifically designed to improve performance in a domain—is strongly predictive of performance in domains such as music and sports. It has evenExpand
Procedural memory and skill acquisition
This chapter discusses the development, maintenance, and exercise of skilled behavior and the roles of explicit, declarative memory and implicit, procedural memory in the development of skill. TheExpand
Why expert performance is special and cannot be extrapolated from studies of performance in the general population: A response to criticisms.
Abstract Many misunderstandings about the expert-performance approach can be attributed to its unique methodology and theoretical concepts. This approach was established with case studies of theExpand
Animal expertise: mechanisms, ecology and evolution
Expertise consists of the features that allow individuals with extensive experience on a given complex task to show superior performance on that task compared to novices. While expertise has beenExpand
Expert Memory, Psychology of
An overview of the psychology of human expertise is presented. Expertise is argued to be an adaptation of memory and cognitive processes optimized to facilitate the performance of recurrent tasks.Expand
Expertise: A Second Look
The concept of accelerated expertise is premised on the idea that different abilities and capacities come into play across the levels and sublevels of proficiency, and should rely on a multimethod approach. Expand


Skilled memory and expertise: Mechanisms of exceptional performance.
Abstract : Skilled memory theory describes how subjects can acquire exceptional memory skills and thereby develop long-term memory with performance characteristics comparable to those of short-termExpand
The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance.
A theoretical framework is proposed that explains expert performance in terms of acquired characteristics resulting from extended deliberate practice and that limits the role of innate (inherited) characteristics to general levels of activity and emotionality. Expand
Can we create gifted people?
The amount of deliberate practice accumulated during many years of preparation is found to be related closely to performance, even at the highest levels. Expand
Skill and Working Memory
Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the important role of retrieval structures as working memory states. The working memory has at least the following components: (1) short-term memory, whichExpand
Visual short-term memory and aging in chess players.
  • N. Charness
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of gerontology
  • 1981
Since the players were equally skilled, the results contradict the view that skill in chess derives primarily from encoding ability and imply that there is an age-related deficit in encoding but not retrieval for visual short-term memory. Expand
Aging and cognition : knowledge organization and utilization
Adult Age Differences in Activity Memory: Cue and Strategy Utilization (M.P. Norris and R.L. West). The Assessment of Qualitative Age Differences in Discourse Processing (E.A.L. Stine and A.Expand
Long-term working memory.
To account for the large demands on working memory during text comprehension and expert performance, the traditional models of working memory involving temporary storage must be extended to includeExpand
Toward a general theory of expertise : prospects and limits
Preface 1. Prospects and limits of the empirical study of expertise: an introduction K. Anders Ericsson and Jacqui Smith 2. Expertise in chess: the balance between knowledge and search Neil CharnessExpand
Cognition in Practice
How may we conceive of cognition in practice? What kind of thinking and reflection animate the accomplishment of action? These problems are usually settled by an intellectualist argument: to performExpand
On the origin of intermediate effects in clinical case recall
In two experiments, the effects of level of medical expertise and study time on free recall of a clinical case were assessed. In Experiment 1, a nonmonotonic relationship between level of expertiseExpand