Expert and exceptional performance: evidence of maximal adaptation to task constraints.

  title={Expert and exceptional performance: evidence of maximal adaptation to task constraints.},
  author={K. Anders Ericsson and Andreas Lehmann},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
Expert and exceptional performance are shown to be mediated by cognitive and perceptual-motor skills and by domain-specific physiological and anatomical adaptations. The highest levels of human performance in different domains can only be attained after around ten years of extended, daily amounts of deliberate practice activities. Laboratory analyses of expert performance in many domains such as chess, medicine, auditing, computer programming, bridge, physics, sports, typing, juggling, dance… 
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  • 2002
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