Expert Stakeholders’ Views on the Management of Human Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

  title={Expert Stakeholders’ Views on the Management of Human Pharmaceuticals in the Environment},
  author={Nora A. Doerr-MacEwen and Murray E. Haight},
  journal={Environmental Management},
Human pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous water contaminants that may have subtle detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, and possibly also on human health. The risks of pharmaceuticals, or pharmaceutically active compounds, remain poorly understood. Awareness of the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment, coupled with evidence of effects such as fish feminization, however, suggest that precautionary management action to reduce the release of pharmaceuticals to the environment should be… 
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awareness of the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment, coupled with some evidence of effects, suggests that precautionary management action to reduce the release of Pharmaceuticals to the environment should be considered.
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