Experiments on the physiology of southern and northern krill, Euphausia superba and Meganyctiphanes norvegica, with emphasis on moult and growth – a review

  title={Experiments on the physiology of southern and northern krill, Euphausia superba and Meganyctiphanes norvegica, with emphasis on moult and growth – a review},
  author={Friedrich B{\'u}chholz},
  journal={Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology},
  pages={229 - 247}
  • F. Búchholz
  • Published 1 December 2003
  • Environmental Science
  • Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
Physiological data are needed for life history studies on krill, and as parameters for input into energy budgets and models. In conjunction with moult and growth data, these may also prove useful for assessing the fishable biomass of krill. Here, the development of physiological concepts in experimental krill research is briefly evaluated, with emphasis on the gaps to be filled. Krill growth is very flexible, as well as strongly temperature and nutrition dependent. The polar Antarctic krill… 

The other krill: overwintering physiology of adult Thysanoessa inermis (Euphausiacea) from the high-Arctic Kongsfjord

Herbivorous krill T. inermis is well adapted to survive the Arctic winter provided that alternative food sources are available, but has a different strategy to cope with starvation than krill species from other latitudes.

Growth and moulting in Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars).

Thermal limits of krill species from the high-Arctic Kongsfjord (Spitsbergen)

Physiological plasticity may explain the recent northward expansion of krill species’ geographic range after recent changes in their biogeographic distributions.

Trophic positioning, diel vertical migration and physiological constraints in euphausiid species of the Namibian upwelling system

This thesis compiles five chapters focusing on thermal constraints, physiological constraints, diel vertical migration behaviour, physiological performance and trophic position of krill species in the northern Benguela upwelling system and a chapter concerning the anaerobic capacity of E. hanseni is included.

Tolerance mechanisms and responses of krill species of different latitudes to oxygen minimum zones

Respiratory measurements and experiments combining hypoxia/reoxygenation exposure coupled with warming were conducted to understand adaptation of species to OMZs and emphasize that respiration measurements of Euphausiid key species should considered all seasons to improve the comparative physiological and ecological models.

Krill of the northern Benguela Current and the Angola-Benguela frontal zone compared: physiological performance and short-term starvation in Euphausia hanseni

The total lipid content and the physiological reaction to starvation are different from euphausiids from other latitudes and help to define E. hanseni as a true upwelling organism.

Ecological investigations of euphausiids at high latitudes

1. Euphausiids are an important component of high latitude pelagic ecosystems, but there is a paucity of information on their distribution, abundance and population processes on within-year time

Physiology and Metabolism of Northern Krill (Meganyctiphanes

M. norvegica is capable of digesting an opportunistic, omnivorous diet, showing some digestive enzyme polymorphism and high levels of enzyme activity, the latter varying with season, and the apparent use of haemocyanin as an energy source/store.



Moult cycle and growth of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba in the laboratory

Knll was very sensitive to experimental variation in feeding regime and the apparent plasticity of growth parameters indicates that it is able to adapt to strong reglonal and seasonal changes in feeding conditions, typical for Antarctic waters.

Growth and longevity of krill during the first decade of pelagic whaling

Estimates of krill growth through the year are obtained which consistently indicate high growth rates, modulated by a strong seasonal pattern, consistent with the studies of age structure using pigment analysis.

Towards an energy budget for krill: The physiology and biochemistry of Euphausia superba Dana

It is concluded that the relationship between basal oxygen consumption and wet weight can be described by the relationship QO2=0.0813 W0.88, that filtration rates in krill are high (but possibly reduced in dense swarms), and growth of adult krill in summer is about 2 mm per week.

Moult in relation to some aspects of reproduction and growth in swarms of Antarctic krill,Euphausia superba

While all immature krill moulted at approximately the saine rate in the study, there were significant differences in the moulting rates of mature male and female krill, likely related to the energy expenditure required for ovary development in females and spermatophore production and searching behaviour in males.

On the food of northern krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica in relation to its vertical distribution

It is proposed that krill in the Clyde Sea area and the Kattegat show a diel rhythm in feeding activity that is believed to be an adaptive response to minimising predation risk.

Reproductive strategies of the Mediterranean krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba (Crustacea: Euphausiacea)

Reproductive strategy was studied in two euphausiid species, E. superba and Meganyctiphanes norvegica, living in extreme climatic conditions and experiencing moderate seasonal variations and a stable temperature regime.

Growth, metabolism and growth efficiency of a euphausiid crustacean Euphausia pacifica in the southern Japan Sea, as influenced by temperature

The biological and ecological significance of the optimum temperature which leads to the maximum K2, which was derived from calculation of cumulative carbon invested in growth and metabolism in this animal, is studied.

Studies on metabolic properties in the Northern Krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Crustacea, euphausiacea): influence of nutrition and season on pyruvate kinase.

Krill-copepod interactions at South Georgia, Antarctica, I. Omnivory by Euphausia superba

Feeding by juvenile Antarctic krill Euphausia superba near South Georgia was assessed during the austral summer of 1995/1996 to suggest that krill could feed rapidly during periodic encounters with layers or patches of zooplankton and to support low algal carbon rations derived from the incubations.