Experimental tests of the roles of adaptation, chance, and history in evolution.

@article{Travisano1995ExperimentalTO,
  title={Experimental tests of the roles of adaptation, chance, and history in evolution.},
  author={Michael Travisano and Judith A. Mongold and Albert F. Bennett and Richard E. Lenski},
  journal={Science},
  year={1995},
  volume={267 5194},
  pages={87-90}
}
The contributions of adaptation, chance, and history to the evolution of fitness and cell size were measured in two separate experiments using bacteria. In both experiments, populations propagated in identical environments achieved similar fitnesses, regardless of prior history or subsequent chance events. In contrast, the evolution of cell size, a trait weakly correlated with fitness, was more strongly influenced by history and chance. 
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