Neurotization of denervated muscles was attempted by means of coaptation of peripheral nerves to the veins draining these muscles. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the lateral gastrocnemius branch from the tibial nerve was severed and its proximal end was sutured to the distal stump of the lateral gastrocnemius vein. In all animals nerve-muscle communication was confirmed electrophysiologically 2 and 6 months after the operation. However, histological examination revealed that the regenerated nerve fibers were not within the vessel lumen, but ran through the scar tissue in close proximity to the outside of the vessel, to enter the muscle. Control animals, in which only nerve resection was done, did not display nerve reinnervation. These results suggest that, although nerve fibers did not regenerate into the vein, the vein works well as a guide for regenerating nerve fibers to denervated muscle.