An animal model was established in dogs to compare primary choledochorraphy with the traditional T-tube method. Authors observed cholangic histologic changes under microscope and electron-microscope between the two groups. The result showed that primary choledochorraphy was better than the traditional method. The advantage of primary choledochorraphy lies in its simplicity, safety and reliability, which have been shown in 30 patients of cholelithiasis in clinical application. It is suggested that for patients primary choledochorraphy may clesirably be used for patients who are indicated for this approach.