Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene

@article{Zhang2005ExperimentalOO,
  title={Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene},
  author={Yuanbo Zhang and Yan-Wen Tan and Horst L. Stormer and Philip Kim},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={438},
  pages={201-204}
}
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied case of quantum wells in conventional semiconductor interfaces. This difference arises from the unique electronic properties of graphene… Expand
Fractional quantum Hall effect and insulating phase of Dirac electrons in graphene
TLDR
The quintessential collective quantum behaviour in two dimensions, the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), has so far resisted observation in graphene despite intense efforts and theoretical predictions of its existence and it is believed that these results will open the door to the physics of FQHE and other collective behaviour in graphene. Expand
Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene
TLDR
The observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in ultraclean, suspended graphene is reported and it is shown that at low carrier density graphene becomes an insulator with a magnetic-field-tunable energy gap. Expand
Insulating to relativistic quantum Hall transition in disordered graphene
Quasi-particle excitations in graphene exhibit a unique behavior concerning two key phenomena of mesoscopic physics: electron localization and the quantum Hall effect. A direct transition betweenExpand
Electronic properties of graphene in a strong magnetic field
We review the basic aspects of electrons in graphene (two-dimensional graphite) exposed to a strong perpendicular magnetic field. One of its most salient features is the relativistic quantum HallExpand
Manifestations of phase-coherent transport in graphene
Abstract.The electronic transport properties of graphene exhibit pronounced differences from those of conventional two dimensional electron systems investigated in the past. As a consequence, wellExpand
Physics in graphene & quantum rings : from mesoscopic device fabrication to measurement in high magnetic fields
New materials often lead to spectacular discoveries. A prominenent example is graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. This one atom thick carbon sheet has a high Expand
Unconventional quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase of 2π in bilayer graphene
There are two known distinct types of the integer quantum Hall effect. One is the conventional quantum Hall effect, characteristic of two-dimensional semiconductor systems1,2, and the other is itsExpand
Bipolar supercurrent in graphene
TLDR
Light is shed on the special role of time reversal symmetry in graphene, and phase coherent electronic transport at the Dirac point is demonstrated, finding that not only the normal state conductance of graphene is finite, but also a finite supercurrent can flow at zero charge density. Expand
Landau quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene and its multilayer
When electrons are confined in a two dimensional (2D) system, typical quantum mechanical phenomena such as Landau quantization can be detected. Graphene systems, including the single atomic layer andExpand
A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase
TLDR
The direct observation of massive Dirac particles in the bulk of Bi0.9Sb0.1 is reported, which suggests that the observed surface state on the boundary of the bulk insulator is a realization of the ‘topological metal’, which has potential application in developing next-generation quantum computing devices that may incorporate ‘light-like’ bulk carriers and spin-textured surface currents. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 32 REFERENCES
Quantum spin Hall effect in graphene.
TLDR
Graphene is converted from an ideal two-dimensional semimetallic state to a quantum spin Hall insulator and the spin and charge conductances in these edge states are calculated and the effects of temperature, chemical potential, Rashba coupling, disorder, and symmetry breaking fields are discussed. Expand
Unconventional integer quantum Hall effect in graphene.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that monolayer graphite films have quasiparticle excitations that can be described by (2+1)-dimensional Dirac theory, which produces an unconventional form of the quantized Hall conductivity sigma(xy) = -(2e2/h)(2n+1) with n = 0, 1, ..., which notably distinguishes graphene from other materials where the integer quantum Hall effect was observed. Expand
Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics.
We have produced ultrathin epitaxial graphite films which show remarkable 2D electron gas (2DEG) behavior. The films, composed of typically three graphene sheets, were grown by thermal decompositionExpand
Manifestation of Berry's Phase in Metal Physics
It is shown that in crystals the semiclassical quantization condition for energy levels of electrons in the magnetic field depends on Berry’s phase. When the electron orbit links to the band-contactExpand
Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional graphite system
Within a self-consistent Born approximation, the Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional graphite system in the presence of a magnetic field is studied by quantum transport theory. The HallExpand
Coulomb oscillations and Hall effect in quasi-2D graphite quantum dots.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that electrons in mesoscopic graphite pieces are delocalized over nearly the whole graphite piece down to low temperatures. Expand
Electronic properties of two-dimensional carbon
Abstract We present a theoretical description of the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of disorder, electron–electron interactions, and particle-hole symmetry breaking. We show thatExpand
Model for a quantum Hall effect without Landau levels: Condensed-matter realization of the "parity anomaly"
  • Haldane
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Physical review letters
  • 1988
TLDR
A two-dimensional condensed-matter lattice model is presented which exhibits a nonzero quantization of the Hall conductance in the absence of an external magnetic field, and exhibits the so-called "parity anomaly" of (2+1)-dimensional field theories. Expand
Are transport anomalies in "electron waveguides" classical?
We test the implicit prediction of a recent classical model that transport anomalies in ballistic multiprobe conductors—the last plateau, quenching, and the negative bend resistance—should scale withExpand
Magnetic oscillations in planar systems with the Dirac-like spectrum of quasiparticle excitations
The quantum magnetic oscillations are studied for planar condensed-matter systems with a linear, Dirac-like spectrum of quasiparticle excitations. We derive analytical expressions for magneticExpand
...
1
2
3
4
...