Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene

@article{Zhang2005ExperimentalOO,
  title={Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene},
  author={Yuanbo Zhang and Yan-Wen Tan and Horst L. Stormer and Philip Kim},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={438},
  pages={201-204}
}
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied case of quantum wells in conventional semiconductor interfaces. This difference arises from the unique electronic properties of graphene… 

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