Experimental infections with West Nile virus

@article{Bowen2007ExperimentalIW,
  title={Experimental infections with West Nile virus},
  author={Richard A. Bowen and Nicole M. Nemeth},
  journal={Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases},
  year={2007},
  volume={20},
  pages={293–297}
}
  • R. Bowen, N. Nemeth
  • Published 1 June 2007
  • Biology
  • Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Purpose of review West Nile virus emerged recently in North America as a serious human and animal pathogen. This review summarizes the use of experimental infections with West Nile virus in diverse vertebrate species that have been used to answer fundamental questions about the host response, pathogenesis of West Nile virus infection and virus evolution. Recent findings West Nile virus has an extremely broad vertebrate host range. Infection of common species of birds has defined those with high… 
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TLDR
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Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research.
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TLDR
The authors outline the different diagnostic methods for detecting WNV infection as well as important considerations in using these methods.
West Nile Virus Associations in Wild Mammals: An Update
TLDR
Important future lines of research are recommended to assess which mammalian species are commonly exposed to WNV, which mammal species develop viremias sufficient for infecting mosquitoes, and which mammals species might be negatively affected by WNV infection at the species or population level.
Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with West Nile virus isolates of Euro-Mediterranean and North American origins
TLDR
Experimental inoculations with four lineage 1 WNV strains from southern Europe and one from North America found host competence was found to be higher for NY99 than for the other strains, and some Euro-Mediterranean strains had reduced capacity for replication in -and transmission from- this host, as compared to the NY99 strain.
The evolution of virulence of West Nile virus in a mosquito vector: implications for arbovirus adaptation and evolution
TLDR
Results demonstrate that WNV MP20 infection decreases the transmission potential of Cx.
The role of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in transmission of West Nile virus in Europe
TLDR
The results presented in this thesis show that the Cx.
Detection of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in birds in Slovakia, using a universal primer set
TLDR
West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in swab and brain samples, whereas one brain sample was positive for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV).
Vector competence of European mosquitoes for West Nile virus
TLDR
The current knowledge on vector competence of European mosquitoes for WNV is reviewed, and the molecular knowledge on physical barriers, anti-viral pathways and microbes that influence vector competence based on studies with other flaviviruses are reviewed.
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References

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Abstract: The ecology of the strain of West Nile virus (WNV) introduced into the United States in 1999 has similarities to the native flavivirus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, but has unique
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TLDR
Nonviremic transmission of WNV between cofeeding mosquitoes is demonstrated and the status of dead-end hosts in the WNV transmission cycle is questioned, which may partly explain the success with which WNV established and rapidly dispersed throughout North America.
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TLDR
The domestic chickens in this study were susceptible to WN virus infection, developed detectable antibodies, survived infection, and with one exception failed to infect cage mates, and were considered positive attributes of a sentinel species for WNirus surveillance programs.
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TLDR
Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature.
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TLDR
There were no observable clinical signs in the WNV-inoculated chickens during the 21-day observation period, but histopathologic examination of tissues revealed myocardial necrosis, nephritis, and pneumonitis at 5 and 10 days postinoculation (DPI); moderate to severe nonsuppurative encephalitis also was observed in brain tissue from one of four inoculated birds examined at 21 DPI.
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is suggested that bats from these two widely distributed species are unlikely to serve as amplifying hosts for West Nile virus.
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TLDR
Young adult and weanling pigs were challenged with the New York 99 strain of West Nile virus through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and it is suggested that pigs are unlikely to play a significant role as amplifying hosts ofWest Nile virus.
NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN FIVE RAPTOR SPECIES
TLDR
It is recommended that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding and that wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations.
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