Experimental infection of domestic canaries (Serinus canaria domestica) with Mycoplasma gallisepticum: a new model system for a wildlife disease

@article{Hawley2011ExperimentalIO,
  title={Experimental infection of domestic canaries (Serinus canaria domestica) with Mycoplasma gallisepticum: a new model system for a wildlife disease},
  author={Dana M. Hawley and Jessica L Grodio and Salvatore Frasca and Laila T. Kirkpatrick and David H Ley},
  journal={Avian Pathology},
  year={2011},
  volume={40},
  pages={321 - 327}
}
The ethical and logistical challenges inherent in experimental infections of wild-caught animals present a key limitation to the study of wildlife diseases. Here we characterize a potentially useful domestic model for a wildlife disease that has been of particular interest in recent decades; that is, infection of North American house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) with Mycoplasma gallisepticum, more commonly known as a worldwide poultry pathogen. Seven domestic canaries (Serinus canaria… 

Response of Black-Capped Chickadees to House Finch Mycoplasma gallisepticum

TLDR
Modeling the Rapid Plate Agglutination test results of black-capped chickadees shows that the rate of false-positive tests would be not more than 3.2%, while the estimated rate offalse negatives is 55%.

Attenuated Phenotype of a Recent House Finch-Associated Mycoplasma gallisepticum Isolate in Domestic Poultry

TLDR
Virulence in domestic poultry with two temporally distant, and yet geographically consistent, HFMG isolates which differ in virulence for house finches is assessed, indicating that a recent isolate of HFMG is greatly attenuated in the chicken host relative to the index isolate.

House finches with high coccidia burdens experience more severe experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections

TLDR
This study suggests that differences in immunocompetence or condition may predispose some finches to more severe infections with both pathogens and quantified coccidia burdens prior to and following experimental infection with M. gallisepticum.

Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli mixed infection model in broiler chickens for studying valnemulin pharmacokinetics.

TLDR
The disposition of valnemulin was retarded in infected chickens after both modes of extravascular administration as compared to the healthy controls, and more attention should be given to monitoring the therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of mixed infection because of higher required plasma drug concentration and enlarged AUC with valNemulin treatment.

Deposition of pathogenic Mycoplasma gallisepticum onto bird feeders: host pathology is more important than temperature-driven increases in food intake

TLDR
The results suggest that in this system, host physiological responses are more important for transmission potential than temperature-dependent alterations in feeding, which is critical to linking individual responses to climate with population-level disease dynamics.

Feeder density enhances house finch disease transmission in experimental epidemics

TLDR
Way in which the density of garden bird feeders could play an important role in mediating the intensity of Mg epidemics is discussed, including among naive group members that never showed signs of disease.

Evidence of trade‐offs shaping virulence evolution in an emerging wildlife pathogen

In the mid‐1990s, the common poultry pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) made a successful species jump to the eastern North American house finch Haemorhous mexicanus (HM). Subsequent strain

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 28 REFERENCES

Mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and other wild birds associated with poultry production facilities.

TLDR
Results suggest that MG persists at low levels in house finches in northeast Georgia and that tufted titmice may be nonclinical carriers of MG or a related mycoplasma.

NATURAL MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM INFECTION IN A CAPTIVE FLOCK OF HOUSE FINCHES

TLDR
The clinical severity of this disease and high proportion of affected birds suggests that M. gallisepticum may have a negative impact on free-flying house finch populations.

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES WITH MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM

TLDR
It is hypothesize that the high survival rate and recovery of these finches after infection was associated with the use of controlled environmental conditions, acclimatization, a high plane of nutrition, and low stocking (housing) density, all of which are factors documented to be important in the outcome of MG infections in domestic poultry and other species.

HOST RANGE AND DYNAMICS OF MYCOPLASMAL CONJUNCTIVITIS AMONG BIRDS IN NORTH AMERICA

TLDR
Observations are most consistent with transmission of an infectious agent from house finches to these secondary hosts via spillover of localized epidemics, rather than sustained interspecific transmission.

Characterization of Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection in Captive House Finch Flocks

TLDR
Describing horizontal transmission of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in two flocks of 11 wild-caught house finches housed in outdoor aviaries over a 6-mo period found that birds that became infected earlier during the experiment developed more severe conjunctivitis, and there was a tendency for birds that developed bilateral conjunctvitis to develop physical signs earlier.

Field investigation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) from Maryland and Georgia.

TLDR
Histologic findings in birds with gross conjunctivitis from both locations were characterized by extensive epithelial and lymphoid hyperplasia as well as lymphoplasmacytic inflammation in conjunctival tissues; keratitis was rarely present.

Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in wild songbirds: the spread of a new contagious disease in a mobile host population.

TLDR
A new mycoplasmal conjunctivitis was first reported in wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in early 1994 and has become widespread and has been reported throughout the eastern United States and Canada.

Further Western Spread of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Infection of House Finches

TLDR
Further western expansion of M. gallisepticum conjunctivitis in the native range of house finches is reported based on positive polymerase chain reaction results with samples from birds captured in 2004 and 2005 near Portland, Oregon.

Detection and quantification of Mycoplasma gallisepticum genome load in conjunctival samples of experimentally infected house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) using real-time polymerase chain reaction

A TaqMan®-based real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay utilizing the mgc2 gene was developed to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum in conjunctival swabs of experimentally