Experimental hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: comparison of apparent diffusion coefficients and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Abstract

This study aims to compare the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the first 24 h of acute hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in piglets. Twenty-five 7-day-old piglets were subjected to transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by ventilation with 4% oxygen for 1 h. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and (1)H-MRS were performed on cessation of the insult or at 3, 6, 12 or 24 h after resuscitation (all n=5). ADCs, N-acetylaspartate/choline (NAA/Cho), NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr), lactate/NAA (Lac/NAA), Lac/Cho and Lac/Cr were calculated. Cerebral injury was evaluated by pathological study and Hsp70 immunohistochemical analysis. On cessation of the insult, ADCs, NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr reduced, Lac/NAA, Lac/Cho and Lac/Cr increased. From 3 to 12 h after resuscitation, ADCs, Lac/NAA, Lac/Cho and Lac/Cr recovered, NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr reduced. Twenty-four hours after resuscitation, ADCs reduced once more, Lac/NAA, Lac/Cho and Lac/Cr increased again, whereas NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr decreased continuously. Pathological study revealed mild cerebral edema on cessation of the insult and more and more severe cerebral injury after resuscitation. No Hsp70-positive cells were detected on cessation of the insult. From 3 to 12 hours after resuscitation, Hsp70-positive cells gradually increased. Twenty-four hours after resuscitation, Hsp70-positive cells decreased. Throughout the experiment, changes in NAA/Cho and pathology had the best correlation (R=-0.729). In conclusion, NAA/Cho is the most precise ratio to reflect the pathological changes of early HIBD. Transient ADCs and Lac ratios recovery do not predict the reversal of histological damage of early HIBD. Reducing astrocytic swelling is of great clinical significance.

DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2009.12.002