Experimental evolution with Drosophila.

@article{Burke2009ExperimentalEW,
  title={Experimental evolution with Drosophila.},
  author={Molly K. Burke and M. Rose},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={296 6},
  pages={
          R1847-54
        }
}
  • M. Burke, M. Rose
  • Published 1 June 2009
  • Biology
  • American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
Experimental evolution is a powerful approach that can be used for the study of adaptation. Evolutionary biologists often use Drosophila as a model organism in experiments that test theories about the evolution of traits related to fitness. Such evolution experiments can take three forms: direct selection for a trait of interest; surveys of traits of interest in populations selected for other traits; and reverse selection. We review some of the Drosophila experiments that have provided insight… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Life-History Evolution and the Genetics of Fitness Components in Drosophila melanogaster

TLDR
What has been learned about the evolution and genetics of life-history variation in D. melanogaster is reviewed by drawing on numerous sources spanning population and quantitative genetics, genomics, experimental evolution, evolutionary ecology, and physiology.

The FlyCatwalk: A High-Throughput Feature-Based Sorting System for Artificial Selection in Drosophila

TLDR
The FlyCatwalk is developed, a fully automated, high-throughput system to sort live fruit flies based on morphometric traits that can detect gender and quantify body and wing morphology parameters at a four-old higher throughput compared with manual processing.

Experimental evolution in yeast: a practical guide.

Effects of evolutionary history on genome wide and phenotypic convergence in Drosophila populations

TLDR
It is concluded that evolutionary repeatability can overcome past bouts of extreme selection in Drosophila experimental evolution, provided experiments are sufficiently long and populations are not inbred.

Genome-wide selection signatures reveal widespread synergistic effects of culture conditions and temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster

TLDR
It is proposed that evolve and resequence (E&R) with reduced genetic variation allows to study genome-wide fitness consequences driven by the interaction of multiple environmental factors.

Experimental manipulation of sexual antagonism in Drosophila melanogaster

TLDR
The results were mixed but indicated that limiting selection of the X-chromosome to females could, to some extent, change the antagonistic variation and move traits towards the female optimum.

TEMPORAL VARIATION FAVORS THE EVOLUTION OF GENERALISTS IN EXPERIMENTAL POPULATIONS OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

TLDR
Genotypes from the temporally variable selective environment were more fecund across all temperatures than were genotypes from other environments, which suggest certain allelic effects and should inspire new directions for modeling adaptation to fluctuating environments.

Sexual Selection and Experimental Evolution

TLDR
Experimental evolution proves critical to understand the evolutionary consequences of male–male competition and female mate choice, and the repercussions of concurrent or divergent interests between the sexes in regard to reproduction.

Ancestral population reconstitution from isofemale lines as a tool for experimental evolution

TLDR
It is concluded that laboratory selection on segregating variation in is ofemale lines is too weak to have detectable effects, which validates ancestral population reconstitution from isofemale lines as an unbiased approach for measuring adaptation in evolved populations.

From microbes to mammals: The experimental evolution of aging and longevity across species

TLDR
A survey of experimental evolution studies that have altered population‐level patterns of reproductive timing and senescence in a variety of species is provided, including the specific selection conditions that have increased longevity, the phenotypic responses and trade‐offs that accompany these increases, and genomic data collected from these experiments are examined.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 54 REFERENCES

The Effects of Evolution are Local: Evidence from Experimental Evolution in Drosophila1

TLDR
Evidence from the experimental evolution of life-history in Drosophila shows that the following factors demonstrably undermine evolutionary correlations between functional characters: inbreeding, genotype-by-environment interaction, novel foci of selection, long-term selection, and alternative genetic backgrounds.

Evolutionary domestication in Drosophila subobscura

The domestication of plants and animals is historically one of the most important topics in evolutionary biology. The evolutionary genetic changes arising from human cultivation are complex because

Phenotypic plasticity and selection in Drosophila life history evolution. 2. Diet, mates and the cost of reproduction

TLDR
The combination of environmental manipulation with evolutionary divergence provides valuable information about the biological connections between life‐history, caloric reserves, and reproductive physiology in Drososphila.

Laboratory selection for the comparative physiologist.

  • A. Gibbs
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1999
TLDR
Recent results and potential directions for selection experiments in comparative physiology suggest new insights into physiological mechanisms, which might not be available using other experimental approaches.

Genetics and genomics of Drosophila mating behavior

TLDR
Drosophila melanogaster was subjected to 29 generations of replicated divergent artificial selection for mating speed, and the phenotypic response to selection was highly asymmetrical in the direction of reduced mating speed.

Experimental evolution reveals natural selection on standing genetic variation

TLDR
It is demonstrated that selection has occurred at several loci and further that there is no general loss or gain of allele diversity and despite the complete convergence to ancestral levels of adaptation, allele frequencies only show partial return.

BREAKDOWN IN CORRELATIONS DURING LABORATORY EVOLUTION. I. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF DROSOPHILA POPULATIONS

TLDR
Evidence from comparisons of populations of Drosophila that evolutionary correlations between longevity and stress resistance break down over the course of laboratory evolution is provided, suggesting that correlations between functional characters are not necessarily durable features of a species, and that short-term evolutionary responses cannot be extrapolated reliably to longer- term evolutionary patterns.

Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

TLDR
An assay to rapidly quantify aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster is developed, and replicate selection lines with divergent levels of aggression are generated, and 15 novel genes affecting aggressive behavior are identified.

Variation in the reversibility of evolution

TLDR
It is shown that reverse evolution back to the ancestral state occurs, but is not universal, instead depending on previous evolutionary history and the character studied.

Using Experimental Evolution to Study the Physiological Mechanisms of Desiccation Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

TLDR
This comparative study supports the hypothesis that, in at least one case, D. melanogaster can evolve increased resistance to desiccation by decreasing water loss rates and by increasing bulk water content but not by increasing metabolic water content or dehydration tolerance.
...