Hazards Caused by UV Rays of Xenon Light Based High Performance Solar Simulators
The performance of a new high-flux solar simulator consisting of 18 × 2.5 kWel radiation modules has been evaluated. Grayscale images of the radiative flux distribution at the focus are acquired for each module individually using a water-cooled Lambertian target plate and a CCD camera. Raw images are corrected for dark current, normalized by the exposure time and calibrated with local absolute heat flux measurements to produce radiative flux maps with 180 μm resolution. The resulting measured peak flux is 1.0–1.5 ± 0.2 MW m per radiation module and 21.7 ± 2 MW m for the sum of all 18 radiation modules. Integrating the flux distribution for all 18 radiation modules over a circular area of 5 cm diameter yields a mean radiative flux of 3.8 MW m and an incident radiative power of 7.5 kW. A Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulation of the simulator is calibrated with the experimental results. The agreement between experimental and numerical results is characterized in terms of a 4.2% difference in peak flux and correlation coefficients of 0.9990 and 0.9995 for the local and mean radial flux profiles, respectively. The best-fit simulation parameters include the lamp efficiency of 39.4% and the mirror surface error of 0.85 mrad. ©2016 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (350.6050) Solar energy; (230.6080) Sources. References and links 1. R. Bader and W. Lipiński, “Thermochemical processes,” in Solar Energy, G.M. Crawley (World Scientific Publishing, 2016). 2. C. Graves, S. D. Ebbesen, M. Mogensen, and K. S. Lackner, “Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2 O with renewable or nuclear energy,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(1), 1–23 (2011). 3. S. Rodat, S. Abanades, and G. Flamant, “Co-production of hydrogen and carbon black from solar thermal methane splitting in a tubular reactor prototype,” Sol. Energy 85(4), 645–652 (2011). 4. A. Meier and A. Steinfeld, “Solar Energy in Thermochemical Processing,” in Solar Energy, C. Richter, D. Lincot, and C. A. Gueymard, eds. (Springer New York, 2013), pp. 521–552. 5. G. Lêveque and S. Abanades, “Thermodynamic and kinetic study of the carbothermal reduction of SnO2 for solar thermochemical fuel generation,” Energy Fuels 28, 1396 (2013). 6. G. Levêque and S. Abanades, “Investigation of thermal and carbothermal reduction of volatile oxides (ZnO, SnO2, GeO2, and MgO) via solar-driven vacuum thermogravimetry for thermochemical production of solar fuels,” Thermochim. Acta 605, 86–94 (2015). 7. A. Meier, E. Bonaldi, G. M. Cella, W. Lipiński, and D. Wuillemin, “Solar chemical reactor technology for industrial production of lime,” Sol. Energy 80(10), 1355–1362 (2006). 8. V. Augugliaro, A. Lauricella, L. Rizzuti, M. Schiavello, and A. Sclafani, “Conversion of solar energy to chemical energy by photoassisted processes—I. Preliminary results on ammonia production over doped titanium dioxide catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 7(11), 845–849 (1982). 9. R. Bader, S. Haussener, and W. Lipiński, “Optical design of multisource high-flux solar simulators,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 137(2), 21012 (2014). 10. G. Olalde, “Final report SOLFACE,” Project report CORDIS, (2007). 11. R. Bader, L. Schmidt, S. Haussener, and W. Lipinski, “A 45 kWe multi-source high-flux solar simulator,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper RW4B.4. R. Vol. 24, No. 22 | 31 Oct 2016 | OPTICS EXPRESS A1360 #268581 http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.0A1360 Journal © 2016 Received 17 Jun 2016; revised 11 Aug 2016; accepted 11 Aug 2016; published 16 Sep 2016 12. K. Lovegrove, G. Burgess, and J. Pye, “A new 500m paraboloidal dish solar concentrator,” Sol. Energy 85(4), 620–626 (2011). 13. K. R. Krueger, W. Lipiński, and J. H. Davidson, “Operational performance of the University of Minnesota 45 kWe high-flux solar simulator,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 135(4), 044501 (2013). 14. J. Sarwar, G. Georgakis, R. LaChance, and N. Ozalp, “Description and characterization of an adjustable flux solar simulator for solar thermal, thermochemical and photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy 100, 179–194 (2014). 15. S. Ulmer, W. Reinalter, P. Heller, E. Lüpfert, and D. Martínez, “Beam characterization and improvement with a flux mapping system for dish concentrators,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 124(2), 182 (2002). 16. J. Petrasch, P. Coray, A. Meier, M. Brack, P. Häberling, D. Wuillemin, and A. Steinfeld, “A novel 50 kW 11,000 suns high-flux solar simulator based on an array of xenon arc lamps,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(4), 405 (2007). 17. X. Dong, Z. Sun, G. J. Nathan, P. J. Ashman, and D. Gu, “Time-resolved spectra of solar simulators employing metal halide and xenon arc lamps,” Sol. Energy 115, 613–620 (2015). 18. A. Rabl, Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications (Oxford University Press, 1985). 19. J. Ballestrín, M. Rodríguez-Alonso, J. Rodríguez, I. Cañadas, F. J. Barbero, L. W. Langley, and A. Barnes, “Calibration of high-heat-flux sensors in a solar furnace,” Metrologia 43(6), 495–500 (2006). 20. K. R. Krueger, J. H. Davidson, and W. Lipiński, “Design of a new 45 kWe high-flux solar simulator for hightemperature solar thermal and thermochemical research,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 133(1), 011013 (2011). 21. R. Gill, E. Bush, P. Haueter, and P. Loutzenhiser, “Characterization of a 6 kW high-flux solar simulator with an array of xenon arc lamps capable of concentrations of nearly 5000 suns,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 125107 (2015). 22. E. Guillot, I. Alxneit, J. Ballestrin, J. L. Sans, and C. Willsh, “Comparison of 3 heat flux gauges and a water calorimeter for concentrated solar irradiance measurement,” Energy Procedia 49, 2090–2099 (2014). 23. D. Nakar, A. Malul, D. Feuermann, and J. M. Gordon, “Radiometric characterization of ultrahigh radiance xenon short-arc discharge lamps,” Appl. Opt. 47(2), 224–229 (2008). 24. K. R. Krueger, “Design and characterization of a concentrating solar simulator,” University of Minnesota (2012).