Experimental Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii

@article{Hutchison1965ExperimentalTO,
  title={Experimental Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii},
  author={WILLIAM M. Hutchison},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1965},
  volume={206},
  pages={961-962}
}
DESPITE the vast literature on the subject of Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of its natural method or methods of transmission apart from the fact that congenital transmission can occur in mammals. The possibility of faecal transmission has already been investigated together with many other possible modes of infection. Jacobs et al.1 fed tissues infected with Toxoplasma to dogs. The faeces which were recovered at intervals afterwards were fed to mice but no infection resulted. The… 
Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans.
Ovine toxoplasmosis
TLDR
Ewes infected prior to mating develop immune responses that help protect against disease in a subsequent pregnancy and also against experimental challenge administered during pregnancy, and Toxovax® is the only commercially available vaccine worldwide to protect against congenital toxoplasmosis.
Reshedding of Toxoplasma oocysts by chronically infected cats
TLDR
The reshedding of T. gondii oocysts by chronically infected cats in the absence of exogenous reinfection is reported, finding that they are remarkably resistant to ordinary environmental influences.
Toxoplasma In and Around Us
TLDR
After the development of a sensitive serologic test by Sabin and Feldman (1948), Toxoplasma antibody was fond earthwide, especially in areas with moist and warm climates.
Toxoplasma gondii in animal reservoirs and the environment
TLDR
The results demonstrate that beef can be an important source of infection even if the prevalence is low, and raw products contributed 40% of the total number of predicted infections.
Transmission of Toxoplasma.
TLDR
Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous parasite of mammals and birds in nature, is one of the most common infections of humans the world over and the probable means whereby this parasite is transmitted has only recently been elucidated.
A Brief History and Overview of Toxoplasma gondii
  • E. Innes
  • Biology
    Zoonoses and public health
  • 2010
TLDR
The discovery of the cat as the definitive host in the 1960s was a very important finding as it helped to complete the authors' understanding of the parasite’s life cycle, and the oocyst stage of T. gondii was very robust and could survive in the environment, depending on the climatic conditions, for up to 12–18 months.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-4 OF 4 REFERENCES
The resistance of the encysted form of Toxoplasma gondii.
TLDR
There are data indicating that the encysted form of the parasite is more hardy than the proliferative form, and morphological evidence indicating that cysts do not originate from masses of proliferating intracellular forms, but develop separately from small structures which increase in size and in number of contained parasites.
Observations on toxoplasmosis in dogs.
TLDR
In order to judge the role of the dog in the spread of Toxoplasma, information in regard to the manner by which the parasite might be transmitted from the dog to other animals and man must be accumulated.
The biology of Toxoplasma.
  • L. Jacobs
  • Biology
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
  • 1953
TLDR
Lack of host specificity, together with morphological and immunological criteria, indicate that the toxoplasmas of different hosts, avian and mammalian, are the same species, T. gondii.