Experimental Tests of General Relativity

@article{Turyshev2008ExperimentalTO,
  title={Experimental Tests of General Relativity},
  author={Slava G. Turyshev},
  journal={Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={58},
  pages={207-248}
}
  • S. Turyshev
  • Published 11 January 2008
  • Physics
  • Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science
Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard theory of gravity, especially where the needs of astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology and fundamental physics are concerned. As such, this theory is used for many practical purposes involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here I review the foundations of general relativity, discuss recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity in the Solar System, and present motivations for the new generation of high-accuracy… 

Figures from this paper

Experimental tests of general relativity: recent progress and future directions
TLDR
The foundation of general relativity is reviewed, recent progress in tests of relativistic gravity is discussed, and motivations for the new generation of high-accuracy tests of new physics beyond general relativity are presented.
Space-based Tests of Relativistic Gravitation
Since its initial publication, Einstein’s general theory of relativity had been tested to a very high precision and presently is considered to be the standard theory of gravitation, especially when
A century of general relativity: Astrophysics and cosmology
One hundred years after its birth, general relativity has become a highly successful physical theory in the sense that it has passed a large number of experimental and observational tests and finds
The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment
  • C. Will
  • Physics, Geology
    Living reviews in relativity
  • 2006
TLDR
Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light deflection, the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, and the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion.
Opportunities for Probing Fundamental Gravity with Solar System Experiments
The recent discovery of "dark energy" has challenged Einstein's general theory of relativity as a complete model for our macroscopic universe. From a theoretical view, the challenge is even stronger:
Tests of general relativity on astrophysical scales
While tested to a high level of accuracy in the Solar system, general relativity is under the spotlight of both theoreticians and observers on larger scales, mainly because of the need to introduce
The 1919 measurement of the deflection of light
The measurement of the deflection of starlight during a total solar eclipse on May 29, 1919 was the first verification of general relativity by an external team of scientists, brought Einstein and
Satellite Laser-Ranging as a Probe of Fundamental Physics
TLDR
A confirmation to approximately one part in a billion of the fundamental weak equivalence principle (“uniqueness of free fall”) in the Earth’s gravitational field is presented with three laser-ranged satellites, at previously unt tested range and with previously untested materials.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 238 REFERENCES
General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?
The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard
Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics
New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been
The Accelerated universe and the moon
Cosmologically motivated theories that explain small acceleration rate of the Universe via modification of gravity at very large, horizon or super-horizon distances, can be tested by precision
Fourth Test of General Relativity
Recent advances in radar astronomy have made possible a fourth test of Einstein's theory of general relativity. The test involves measuring the time delays between transmission of radar pulses
General relativity as a cosmological attractor of tensor-scalar theories.
Tensor-scalar theories of gravity are shown to generically contain an attractor mechanism toward general relativity, with the redshift at the beginning of the matter-dominated era providing the
Postulate versus Observation in the Special Theory of Relativity
In 1905 Einstein(1) published his theory of electro-dynamics of moving bodies, which has long since been incorporated in the accepted body of physical science under the less descriptive name of the
A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft
TLDR
A measurement of the frequency shift of radio photons to and from the Cassini spacecraft as they passed near the Sun agrees with the predictions of standard general relativity with a sensitivity that approaches the level at which, theoretically, deviations are expected in some cosmological models.
Signals for Lorentz violation in post-Newtonian gravity
The pure-gravity sector of the minimal standard-model extension is studied in the limit of Riemann spacetime. A method is developed to extract the modified Einstein field equations in the limit of
PROBING SPACE–TIME IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM: FROM CASSINI TO BEPICOLOMBO
Spacecraft radio science techniques can be used for precision solar system tests of relativistic gravity, as was demonstrated by the measurement of the Doppler shift of radio signals with the Cassini
The Viking Relativity Experiment
Measurements of the round-trip time of flight of radio signals transmitted from the earth to the Viking spacecraft are being analyzed to test the predictions of Einstein's theory of general
...
...