# Experimental Realization of a Dirac Monopole through the Decay of an Isolated Monopole

@article{Ollikainen2016ExperimentalRO, title={Experimental Realization of a Dirac Monopole through the Decay of an Isolated Monopole}, author={T. Ollikainen and K. Tiurev and A. Blinova and W. Lee and D. Hall and M. Mottonen}, journal={Physical Review X}, year={2016}, volume={7}, pages={021023} }

Magnetic monopoles have been sought for decades but never definitively observed. Recent experiments have created different analogs of monopoles in Bose-Einstein condensates, including quantum-mechanical and Dirac monopoles. Now a new experiment in this system shows how a quantum-mechanical monopole can evolve into a Dirac monopole.

#### Paper Mentions

#### 12 Citations

Creation of a Dirac monopole-antimonopole pair in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate

- Physics
- 2019

We theoretically demonstrate that a pair of Dirac monopoles with opposite synthetic charges can be created within a single spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate by steering the spin degrees of freedom by… Expand

Topological Monopoles in Quantum Antiferromagnets

- Physics, Computer Science
- Symmetry
- 2019

It is shown that phonons or lattice shear strain generate topological monopoles in some low-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets, based on mapping the spin degrees of freedom onto spinless fermions using the generalized Jordan–Wigner transformation in dimensions higher than one. Expand

Magnetic Monopoles and Dark Matter

- Physics
- 2018

Schwinger’s idea about the magnetic world of the early Universe, in which magnetic charges (monopoles) and magnetic atoms (g+g–) could be formed, is developed. In the present-day Universe magnetic… Expand

Synthetic Landau Levels and Spinor Vortex Matter on a Haldane Spherical Surface with a Magnetic Monopole.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2018

A flexible scheme to realize exact flat Landau levels on curved spherical geometry in a system of spinful cold atoms by applying the Floquet engineering of a magnetic quadrupole field to create a synthetic monopole field in real space is presented. Expand

Decay of a Quantum Knot.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2019

The structure of the quantum knot created in the polar magnetic phase is similar to that predicted to appear in the evolution of an isolated monopole defect, suggesting a possible universality in the observed topological transition. Expand

A synthetic macroscopic magnetic unipole

- Physics
- 2020

We demonstrate experimentally with a prototype for the first time, that an artificial emergent magnetic unipole hedgehog field in a simply connected three dimensional domain is possible, emulating… Expand

Three-dimensional skyrmions in spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates

- Physics
- 2017

We introduce topologically stable three-dimensional skyrmions in the cyclic and biaxial nematic phases of a spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. These skyrmions exhibit exceptionally high mapping degrees… Expand

Rotating Atomic Quantum Gases with Light-Induced Azimuthal Gauge Potentials and the Observation of the Hess-Fairbank Effect.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2018

The azimuthal gauge potentials act as effective rotations and are tunable by the Raman coupling and detuning and are exploited to demonstrate the Hess-Fairbank effect, the analogue of Meissner effect in superconductors. Expand

Critical Spin Superflow in a Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2017

Another critical point for spin superflow is identified, in which transverse magnon excitations are dynamically generated via spin-exchanging collisions, which leads to the transient formation of axial polar spin domains. Expand

Spin-Orbital-Angular-Momentum Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2018

Coupling between the atomic spin- and orbital-angular momentum (OAM) of the atom's center-of-mass motion in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is demonstrated and correlations between spin and OAM in the dressed state are observed and the spin texture is characterized. Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 57 REFERENCES

Decay of an isolated monopole into a Dirac monopole

- Physics
- 2015

We study numerically the detailed structure and decay dynamics of isolated monopoles in conditions similar to those of their recent experimental discovery. We find that the core of a monopole in the… Expand

Evolution of an isolated monopole in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate

- Physics
- 2016

The evolution of an isolated monopole is investigated in a ferromagnetically coupled, spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in the absence of external magnetic fields. It is predicted that a polar-core… Expand

Ground-State Dirac Monopole

- Physics
- 2011

We show theoretically that a monopole defect, analogous to the Dirac magnetic monopole, may exist as the ground state of a dilute spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate. The ground-state monopole is not… Expand

Creation of Dirac monopoles in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2009

It is demonstrated theoretically that, by using external magnetic fields, one can imprint pointlike topological defects on the spin texture of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate, providing an ideal analogue to the monopole studied by Dirac. Expand

Dirac monopoles and dipoles in ferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

- Physics
- 2003

We investigate a radial spin hedgehog, analogous to the Dirac monopole, in an optically trapped atomic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate. By joining together a monopole-antimonopole pair, we may form a… Expand

Observation of Dirac monopoles in a synthetic magnetic field

- Physics, Medicine
- Nature
- 2014

These real-space images provide conclusive and long-awaited experimental evidence of the existence of Dirac monopoles, and provides an unprecedented opportunity to observe and manipulate these quantum mechanical entities in a controlled environment. Expand

Non-Abelian magnetic monopole in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2009

This work studies this monopole in a Bose-Einstein condensate of degenerate dressed states and finds that the topological charge of the pseudospin cancels the monopole charge resulting in a vanishing gauge invariant charge. Expand

Monopoles in an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2001

We show that even in three dimensions an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, which can, for instance, be created with (23)Na atoms in an optical trap, has not only singular linelike… Expand

Observation of isolated monopoles in a quantum field

- Medicine, Physics
- Science
- 2015

An analog of the magnetic monopole has been created and observed in an ultracold gas of rubidium-87 atoms, and these observations lay the foundation for experimental studies of the dynamics and stability of topological point defects in quantum systems. Expand

Dynamical instability of a doubly quantized vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

- Physics, Medicine
- Physical review letters
- 2004

Doubly quantized vortices were topologically imprinted in /F=1> 23Na condensates, and their time evolution was observed using a tomographic imaging technique and characterized and attributed to dynamical instability. Expand