Experimental Demonstration of the Fitness Consequences of an Introduced Parasite of Darwin's Finches

@article{Koop2011ExperimentalDO,
  title={Experimental Demonstration of the Fitness Consequences of an Introduced Parasite of Darwin's Finches},
  author={Jennifer A. H. Koop and Sarah K. Huber and Sean M. Laverty and Dale H. Clayton},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
  year={2011},
  volume={6}
}
Background Introduced parasites are a particular threat to small populations of hosts living on islands because extinction can occur before hosts have a chance to evolve effective defenses. An experimental approach in which parasite abundance is manipulated in the field can be the most informative means of assessing a parasite's impact on the host. The parasitic fly Philornis downsi, recently introduced to the Galápagos Islands, feeds on nestling Darwin's finches and other land birds. Several… Expand

Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper

An introduced parasitic fly may lead to local extinction of Darwin's finch populations.
TLDR
The study demonstrates the predicted high risk of local extinction of an abundant host species, the medium ground finch Geospiza fortis due to an introduced parasite, Philornis downsi, and suggests that careful management practices aimed at reducing parasite prevalence have the potential to significantly lower the risk of host species extinction. Expand
Tri-trophic ecology of native parasitic nest flies of birds in Tobago
TLDR
Assessment of the virulence of a native species of Philornis (Philornis trinitensis), which parasitizes birds on the island of Tobago, suggests that introduced P. downsi in the Galapagos is widespread, not because hosts lack defenses, but because it has left its enemies behind. Expand
Effects of an introduced parasitic nest fly on endemic avian hosts in the Galapagos Islands
TLDR
This work demonstrates that mockingbird reservoir hosts of P. downsi change their behavior to tolerate parasite damage, and presents evidence that self-fumigation by finches can be used as an effective stopgap approach to control P.downsi. Expand
Experimental demonstration of a parasite-induced immune response in wild birds: Darwin's finches and introduced nest flies
TLDR
The relationship between host immune response, parasite load, and host fitness using Darwin's finches and an invasive nest parasite is investigated and it is found that while the immune response of mothers appeared defensive, it did not rescue current reproductive fitness. Expand
Host-parasite ecology, behavior and genetics: a review of the introduced fly parasite Philornis downsi and its Darwin’s finch hosts
TLDR
This review examines the rapid changes in host and parasite ecology, behavior, and genetics since P. downsi larvae were first discovered in Darwin’s finch nests to synthesize what is known about this lethal host-parasite system and to describe rapidChanges inHost and parasite biology that characterize the novel association. Expand
Population structure of a nest parasite of Darwin’s finches within its native and invasive ranges
TLDR
This study uses genomic and phylogenetic approaches to estimate population structure and connectivity for P. downsi collected from five islands within the Galapagos Islands and several sites in mainland Ecuador, which is the presumptive origin of the invasive population. Expand
Native parasitic nest fly impacts reproductive success of an island‐endemic host
TLDR
The results indicate that parasitism by nest flies decreases survival and fledging success of nestling Ridgway's hawks and is a possible factor in the decline of the species. Expand
Changes in Philornis infestation behavior threaten Darwin's finch survival
TLDR
Testing the hypothesis that P. downsi flies are laying eggs in finch nests earlier in the nestling phase to maximize larval feeding time and therefore chance of pupation success before host death reveals new fitness costs to both the parasite and Darwin's finches. Expand
Parasitism by an invasive nest fly reduces future reproduction in Galápagos mockingbirds
Organisms allocate limited resources to competing activities such as reproduction, growth, and defense against parasites and predators. The introduction of a novel parasite may create new lifeExpand
Weed management increases the detrimental effect of an invasive parasite on arboreal Darwin's finches
TLDR
A negative additive effect of parasitism and weed management is found on the breeding success of the insectivorous warbler finch, but not on the omnivorous small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), which was strongly affected by parasitism independently of weed management. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 52 REFERENCES
An experimental study on the effects of an introduced parasite in Darwin's finches.
TLDR
A single insecticide treatment was sufficient to reduce parasite intensity to nearly zero, and revealed reduced mass gain and reduced fledging success in parasitized nests compared to parasite-reduced nests, in the first experimental study of fitness impacts by Philornis on its host species. Expand
Parasite infestation and predation in Darwin's small ground finch: contrasting two elevational habitats between islands
TLDR
It is suggested that the impacts of an introduced parasite are limited by its niche requirements and resource availability within and across islands, and that the vulnerability of bird populations to introduced parasites and predators is linked with variation in life history strategies across habitats. Expand
How to save the rarest Darwin's finch from extinction: the mangrove finch on Isabela Island
  • B. Fessl, Glyn H Young, +4 authors J. Fa
  • Geography, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
TLDR
Using population viability analysis, the probability of population persistence under various scenarios of control was simulated and it was shown that with effective management of these invasive species, mangrove finch populations should start to recover. Expand
Effects of the introduced parasite Philornis downsi on nestling growth and mortality in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis)
Invasive species have the potential to detrimentally affect native ecosystems by out competing or directly preying upon native organisms, and have been implicated in the extinction of endemicExpand
High blowfly parasitic loads affect breeding success in a Mediterranean population of blue tits
TLDR
It is shown that the attack by Protocalliphora causes anaemia and an important disturbance to the chicks, which suggests that in this population of blue tit, blowflies decrease the probability of recruitment of young blue tits. Expand
PARASITISM REDUCES THE POTENTIAL FOR EVOLUTION IN A WILD BIRD POPULATION
TLDR
To the authors' knowledge, this experiment provides the first evidence of host quantitative genetics being influenced by parasitism, and illustrates the potential for parasitism to constrain an evolutionary response to selection. Expand
Interannual and interspecific variation in intensity of the parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, in Darwin’s finches
TLDR
Surprisingly, despite a threefold difference in rainfall across lowland and highland habitats in other than the El Nino year, there was no difference in parasite intensity per nest between habitats, however, species composition of hosts and intraspecific brood size vary across habitats. Expand
Evolution of Character Displacement in Darwin's Finches
TLDR
It is reported that a Darwin's finch species on an undisturbed Galápagos island diverged in beak size from a competitor species 22 years after the competitor's arrival, when they jointly and severely depleted the food supply. Expand
Video analysis of host–parasite interactions in nests of Darwin’s finches
TLDR
In nests with high parasite intensity, nestlings increased self-preening behaviour, ate larvae and stood on top of one another, shedding light on the emergence of anti-parasite behaviour as well as host–parasites relationships after recent parasitism in a naïve host. Expand
Distribution of the introduced parasitic fly Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) in the Galapagos Islands
TLDR
The introduced fly parasite Philornis downsi reduces nestling survival and growth rate of altricial birds, and can cause mortality and morbidity of the nestlings, in the Galapagos islands. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...