Experimental Assays to Assess the Efficacy of Vinegar and Other Topical First-Aid Approaches on Cubozoan (Alatina alata) Tentacle Firing and Venom Toxicity

@article{Yanagihara2016ExperimentalAT,
  title={Experimental Assays to Assess the Efficacy of Vinegar and Other Topical First-Aid Approaches on Cubozoan (Alatina alata) Tentacle Firing and Venom Toxicity},
  author={Angel A. Yanagihara and Christie L. Wilcox and Rebecca King and Kikiana Hurwitz and Ann M. Castelfranco},
  journal={Toxins},
  year={2016},
  volume={8}
}
Despite the medical urgency presented by cubozoan envenomations, ineffective and contradictory first-aid management recommendations persist. A critical barrier to progress has been the lack of readily available and reproducible envenomation assays that (1) recapitulate live-tentacle stings; (2) allow quantitation and imaging of cnidae discharge; (3) allow primary quantitation of venom toxicity; and (4) employ rigorous controls. We report the implementation of an integrated array of three… 
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Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations
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The authors' results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More® products).
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