Experience with primary reserve supplied from energy storage system

@article{Kjar2015ExperienceWP,
  title={Experience with primary reserve supplied from energy storage system},
  author={Philip Carne Kjar and Rasmus Larke},
  journal={2015 17th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'15 ECCE-Europe)},
  year={2015},
  pages={1-6}
}
This paper presents practical experience obtained during the first years of operation of a 1.6MW/0.4MWh Li-ion battery energy storage system used for provision of frequency regulation and participation in the Western Denmark primary reserve market. The paper presents recorded performance during operation, identifies losses in main power conversion and auxiliary power supply, and proposes a battery charging strategy that allows compliance with the technical performance requirements from the TSO.