Expectations and associations that heal: Immunomodulatory placebo effects and its neurobiology

 Expectations and associations that heal: Immunomodulatory placebo effects and its neurobiology},
  author={Gustavo Pacheco-L{\'o}pez and Harald Engler and Maj-Britt Niemi and Manfred Schedlowski},
  journal={Brain, Behavior, and Immunity},
New Insights into the Placebo and Nocebo Responses
The placebo phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms
Substantial evidence is suggesting that placebo effects are indicative of healthy functioning of intact brain structures and occur through actual functional changes, and are not simply subjective symptom reports, and can be utilized in treatment optimization while maintaining an ethical and respectful manner toward the patient and the standardized disclosure procedures.
The role of placebo effects in immune-related conditions: mechanisms and clinical considerations
Findings that demonstrate the ability to learn immune responses in both experimental animal and human placebo studies making use of conditioning paradigms with immunomodulating drug agents are reviewed.
The placebo response: neurobiological and clinical issues of neurological relevance.
Effects of placebo administration on immune mechanisms and relationships with central endogenous opioid neurotransmission
Findings are consistent with a modulating effect of placebo (under analgesic expectation in humans) on a potent nociceptive, pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-18) and underlying relationships with endogenous opioid activity, a neurotransmitter system critically involved in pain, stress, and mood regulation.
Neuro-Bio-Behavioral Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo Responses: Implications for Clinical Trials and Clinical Practice
The neuro-bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying placebo and nocebo responses that are currently known in terms of different diseases and physiologic systems are summarized and critically examined.
Mechanisms of placebo and placebo-related effects across diseases and treatments.
Recent research has revealed that these psychosocial-induced biochemical changes in a patient's brain and body in turn may affect the course of a disease and the response to a therapy.
How Placebos Change the Patient's Brain
Data indicate that different social stimuli, such as words and rituals of the therapeutic act, may change the chemistry and circuitry of the patient's brain, which suggests a cognitive/affective interference with drug action.
Placebo analgesia and beyond: a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience
Recent evidence confirms and extends previous findings on the key role of prefrontal regions in the placebo response, and represents an excellent tool for neuroscience in the experimental setting.


Placebos, Placebo Effect, and the Response to the Healing Situation: The Evolution of a Concept
This work presents the historical changes of the concept of placebo and the ethical issues raised by their use, and suggests that progress in this area may promote useful clinical applications, enabling physicians to broaden their perspectives on the healing process.
Magic or medicine? Clinical pharmacological basis of placebo medication.
  • V. Oh
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • 1991
The endogenous brain systems of opioid, antiopioid, and gamma-aminobutyric acid polypeptide transmitters and neuronal receptors account in part for placebo analgesia.
Mechanisms of the Placebo Effect and of Conditioning
  • F. Haour
  • Psychology, Biology
  • 2005
Brain imaging has demonstrated that placebos can mimic the effect of the active drugs and activate the same brain areas and it remains to be understood how conditioning and expectation are able to activate memory loops in the brain that reproduce the expected biological responses.
The Placebo Response in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Analyzing the summary placebo response in clinical trials of chronic fatigue syndrome found that psychological-psychiatric interventions were shown to have a lower placebo response, perhaps linked to patient expectations.
Conscious Expectation and Unconscious Conditioning in Analgesic, Motor, and Hormonal Placebo/Nocebo Responses
The effects of opposing verbal suggestions on experimental ischemic arm pain in healthy volunteers and on motor performance in Parkinsonian patients are analyzed and found that verbally induced expectations of analgesia/hyperalgesia and motor improvement/worsening antagonized completely the effects of a conditioning procedure.