Expanding the Three Rs to Meet New Challenges in Humane Animal Experimentation

  title={Expanding the Three Rs to Meet New Challenges in Humane Animal Experimentation},
  author={Catherine A. Schuppli and David Fraser and Michael McDonald},
  journal={Alternatives to Laboratory Animals},
  pages={525 - 532}
The Three Rs are the main principles used by Animal Ethics Committees in the governance of animal experimentation, but they appear not to cover some ethical issues that arise today. These include: a) claims that certain species should be exempted on principle from harmful research; b) increased emphasis on enhancing quality of life of research animals; c) research involving genetically modified (GM) animals; and d) animals bred as models of disease. In some cases, the Three Rs can be extended… 

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