Expanding horizons of shikimic acid

  title={Expanding horizons of shikimic acid},
  author={Garima Rawat and Priyanka H. Tripathi and Rajendra Kumar Saxena},
  journal={Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology},
Shikimic acid is an industrially important chiral compound used as a key ingredient in formulation of drug Oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) for the treatment of swine/avian flu. The high cost and limited availability of shikimic acid isolated from plants has detained the use of this valuable building block of the drug. It is a versatile compound having many characteristic properties for many synthetic reactions particularly in pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. By virtue of being a natural… 
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The synthetic utility of shikimic acid is demonstrated by covering the most important synthetic modifications and related applications, namely, synthesis of Tamiflu and derivatives, synthetic manipulations of the main functional groups, and its use as biorenewable material and in total synthesis.
Shikimic acid in the light of current knowledge
Shikimic acid (SA) has been mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry for production of drugs, however, recently it has also appeared in the world of cosmetics and has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hair‐growth stimulating, anti‐aging effect and antifungal properties.
Metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced shikimate biosynthesis: current scenario and future developments
This review elaborates the enhanced biosynthesis of shikimate by utilizing an array of traditional metabolic engineering along with novel advanced technologies and discusses a variety of industrially pertinent compounds derived fromShikimate with special reference to aromatic amino acids and phenazine compound.
Metabolic Engineering of Shikimic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway for the Production of Shikimic Acid and Its Branched Products in Microorganisms: Advances and Prospects
The effects of classical metabolic engineering methods, such as central carbon metabolism (CCM) pathway modification, key enzyme gene modification, blocking the downstream pathway on the shikimate pathway, as well as several expansion pathways and metabolic engineering strategies of the shkimate pathway are considered.
Enzymes of industrial interest Enzimas de interés industrial
It has been calculated that 50-60% of the world enzyme market is supplied with recombinant enzymes, and molecular methods, including genomics and metagenomics, are being used for the discovery of new enzymes from microbes.
Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) chemicals: a critical review of current biotechnological approaches
The aim of the review is to explore the pathway of the biotechnological approaches so that less chosen producers and underdeveloped areas can be allied so that pressure on the systems of biomass production can be relaxed.
Aromatic Compound Production by Corynebacterium glutamicum
This chapter summarizes recent advances in the metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for the production of valuable aromatic and related compounds, some of which could be produced from sugars with markedly high productivities.


A Natural Isolate Producing Shikimic Acid: Isolation, Identification, and Culture Condition Optimization
This process optimization resulted in 14-fold increase in the shikimic acid production, thereby claiming this process to be a sustainable alternative for the production of this important biomolecule.
Prospecting for alternate sources of shikimic acid, a precursor of Tamiflu, a bird-flu drug
Shikimic acid is converted to a diethyl ketal intermediate, which is then reduced in two steps to an epoxide that is finally transformed to Tamiflu, the only drug against avian flu caused by the H5N1 virus.
Metabolic engineering for microbial production of shikimic acid.
Separation of Shikimic Acid from Pine Needles
Shikimic acid is used as a precursor for the synthesis of oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu®), which is used as an anti-viral for the H5N1 strain. As concern for this virus increases, demand for
Hydroaromatic equilibration during biosynthesis of shikimic acid.
These experiments indicate that formation of quinic acid during biosynthesis of shikimic acid results from a microbe-catalyzed equilibration of initially synthesized shikIMic acid.
Microbial production of 1,3-propanediol: Recent developments and emerging opportunities.
The shikimic acid pathway and polyketide biosynthesis
Recent progress is reported in the analysis of two unusual branches of the shikimic acid pathway in streptomycetes; the formation of the cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (CHC)-derived moiety of the antifungal agent ansatrienin and the dihydroxycyclohexenylcarbonyl-CoA reductase starter unit for the biosynthesis of the immunosuppressant ascomycin.
The Shikimate Pathway: Early Steps in the Biosynthesis of Aromatic Compounds.
This review gives a short overview of the shikimate pathway and briefly introduces the seven enzymes that catalyze the sequential steps of the pathway, and discusses some regulatory features of severa1 of the enzymes.
The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino Acid biosynthesis in plants.
The pathway organization and the transcriptional/posttranscriptional regulation of the AAA biosynthetic network is summarized and the current limited knowledge of the subcellular compartmentalization and the metabolite transport involved in the plant AAA pathways is identified.
The shikimate pathway links metabolism of carbohydrates to biosynthesis of aromatic compounds, the precursor of the aromatic amino acids and many aromatic secondary metabolites, and is the sole target for the herbicide glyphosate.