A tough nut to crack: Chronic fatigue syndrome and abdominal pain attributed to nutcracker syndrome
- Bader Hammami
A 40-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic gross hematuria caused by the nutcracker phenomenon. Despite treatment with hemostatic agents and injection of silver nitrate into the renal pelvis, the hematuria had continued, and severe anemia (hematocrit 17%) had developed. We performed expandable metallic stent (EMS) placement across the left renal vein. Although mild hematuria continued, the anemia resolved after this interventional radiotherapy. EMS placement is a minimally invasive therapy for the nutcracker phenomenon.