Expandable metal stents for malignant hilar biliary obstruction.

  title={Expandable metal stents for malignant hilar biliary obstruction.},
  author={Christian Gerges and Brigitte M Schumacher and Grischa Terheggen and Horst Neuhaus},
  journal={Gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics of North America},
  volume={21 3},
  pages={481-97, ix}
Most patients with malignant hilar stenoses are candidates for palliation. For this purpose, biliary drainage plays a major role in improving liver function and managing or avoiding cholangitis. Endoscopic interventions are less invasive than the percutaneous approach and should be considered as the first-line drainage procedures in most cases. Transhepatic interventions should be reserved for endoscopic failures or performed as a complementary approach in a combined procedure. After successful… CONTINUE READING
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