Exorcizing the animal spirits: Jan Swammerdam on nerve function

@article{Cobb2002ExorcizingTA,
  title={Exorcizing the animal spirits: Jan Swammerdam on nerve function},
  author={Matthew Cobb},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
  year={2002},
  volume={3},
  pages={395-400}
}
  • M. Cobb
  • Published 1 May 2002
  • Psychology, Philosophy, Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Neuroscience
For more than 1,500 years, nerves were thought to function through the action of 'animal spirits'. In the seventeenth century, René Descartes conceived of these 'spirits' as liquids or gases, and used the idea to explain reflex action. But he was rapidly proven wrong by a young Dutchman, Jan Swammerdam. Swammerdam's elegant experiments pioneered the frog nerve–muscle preparation and laid the foundation of our modern understanding of nerve function. 
Historical concepts on the relations between nerves and muscles
TLDR
The history since antiquity of studies on the anatomical and functional relations between nerves and muscles, and the progressive use of newer approaches to this topic are addressed.
Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.
  • C. M. Smith
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Handbook of clinical neurology
  • 2010
TLDR
This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia.
Did Jan Swammerdam Do the First Electric Stimulation over 100 Years before Luigi Galvani
It is generally believed that the first experiment on bimetallic electric stimulation of living body was made by Luigi Galvani with frog leg in 1786. Galvani however succeeded to produce electric
History of electrophysiology and the patch clamp.
We provide a historic outlook on the development of the concept of bioelectricity, with emphasis on the neuromuscular junction as a model that revolutionized our thinking of the nerve, nervous, and
Thinking about the nerve impulse: A critical analysis of the electricity-centered conception of nerve excitability
TLDR
A historico-scientific overview of the developments that have led to the current conception of the action potential as an electrical phenomenon is provided, some major objections against this conception are discussed, and a number of scientific factors are suggested which have likely contributed to the enduring success of the Hodgkin-Huxley model.
Brief history of electrical cortical stimulation: A journey in time from Volta to Penfield
TLDR
ECS is commonly used in neurosurgery for localization of brain functions and is the benchmark for research studies, and significant leaps have been made since ECS first used in the 19th century.
Some historical reflections on the neural control of locomotion
  • F. Clarac
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Brain Research Reviews
  • 2008
TLDR
This article starts with some major 17th century concepts, which were developed by René Descartes, a French philosopher; Thomas Willis, an English anatomist; and Giovanni Borelli, an Italian physiologist and physicist, on the organization and control of movements.
From Galvani to patch clamp: the development of electrophysiology
TLDR
The development of electrophysiology is traced from the early beginnings represented by the work of the Dutch microscopist, Jan Swammerdam, in the 17th century through the invention late in the 20th century of the patch-clamp technique by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann.
Brain and Mind in the ‘Long’ Eighteenth Century
How should the 'long' eighteenth century be defined? January 1, 1700 and December 31, 1799 are quite arbitrary dates. Why should they be chosen to segment our history rather than more significant
Chapter 11: on the use of animal experimentation in the history of neurology.
  • F. Stahnisch
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Handbook of clinical neurology
  • 2010
TLDR
Various social backgrounds of the Western research endeavor in biomedicine, such as the influence of conflicting religious and cultural beliefs held by neuroscientists or the public, will be touched upon to illustrate the complex efforts of different historical contexts.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 40 REFERENCES
The Wilkins Lecture, 1979 Of the local movement of animals
  • G. Whitteridge
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1979
TLDR
William Harvey was writing notes for a treatise on the movement of animals, De motu locali animalium, which in the event he neither published nor completed, but his contribution to the study of the physiology of muscle has been unnoticed.
Reading and writing The Book of Nature: Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680)
TLDR
Jan Swammerdam's greatest contribution to biology was his understanding of insect development and his demonstration that the same organism persists through its various stages, which laid the basis of the modern understanding of morphogenesis.
Reflex Action: A Study in the History of Physiological Psychology
Faith in the new cybernetic technology has led many people to discern mindlike behavior in automata and to predict that soon we shall have machines that exhibit most of the qualities of the human
Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680). His Life and Works
TLDR
The author's method has been to reproduce virtually in extenso the comprehensive Introduction by Boerhaave to the Biblia Naturae (1737), but with additional material and commentaries interspersed throughout.
Lectures on the History of Physiology during the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
THERE is no more fascinating chapter in the history of science than that which deals which physiology, but a concise and at the same time compendious account of the early history of the subject has
The old martyr of science: The frog in experimental physiology
  • F. Holmes
  • Art, Medicine
    Journal of the history of biology
  • 1993
Regard sur le parcours historique de la grenouille en tant que modele animal dans l'etude de la physiologie generale des vertebres.En effet, c'est depuis la moitie du 17eme siecle que cet animal
Malpighi, Swammerdam and the Colourful Silkworm: Replication and Visual Representation in Early Modern Science
  • M. Cobb
  • Philosophy, Medicine
    Annals of science
  • 2002
TLDR
The role played by Henry Oldenburg, secretary of the Royal Society, in encouraging contact between the two men is emphasized and the way this exchange reveals the development of some key features of modern science -- replication and modern scientific illustration -- is discussed.
Long-range Perspectives on Neurobiology and Behavior
This essay is part of the seventh presentation of a yearly educational project of the American Society of Zoologists. The purpose is to provide background materials for those who teach the first-year
Two millennia of animal spirits
TLDR
An ancient theory about nerves proved surprisingly hard to dislodge, according to research published in the journal Neuron.
La formation du concept de réflexe aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles
Dans cette etude, qui etait a l’origine sa these de doctorat, Canguilhem retrace les etapes historiques de la formation du concept de reflexe au cours des XVIIe et XVIIIe siecles, c’est-a-dire depuis
...
1
2
3
4
...