# Exoplanet secondary atmosphere loss and revival

@article{Kite2020ExoplanetSA,
title={Exoplanet secondary atmosphere loss and revival},
author={Edwin Stephen Kite and Megan N. Barnett},
journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
year={2020},
volume={117},
pages={18264 - 18271}
}
• Published 3 June 2020
• Medicine, Physics, Geology
• Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Significance Earth and Venus have significant atmospheres, but Mercury does not. Thousands of exoplanets are known, but we know almost nothing about rocky exoplanet atmospheres. Many rocky exoplanets were formed by a sub-Neptune-to-super-Earth conversion process during which planets lose most of their H2-rich (primary) atmospheres and are reduced in volume by a factor of >2. Does such a gas-rich adolescence increase or decrease the likelihood that super-Earths will subsequently exhibit a H2…

## Figures from this paper

The Phase-curve Signature of Condensible Water-rich Atmospheres on Slowly Rotating Tidally Locked Exoplanets
• Physics, Environmental Science
• 2020
We use an idealized three-dimensional general circulation model to study condensible-rich atmospheres with an ineffective cold trap on slowly rotating tidally locked terrestrial planets. In
Detection of an Atmosphere on a Rocky Exoplanet
We report the detection of an atmosphere on a rocky exoplanet, GJ 1132 b, which is similar to Earth in terms of size and density. The atmospheric transmission spectrum was detected using Hubble WFC3
Hidden Water in Magma Ocean Exoplanets
• Physics
The Astrophysical Journal Letters
• 2021
We demonstrate that the deep volatile storage capacity of magma oceans has significant implications for the bulk composition, interior, and climate state inferred from exoplanet mass and radius data.
Detection of Ongoing Mass Loss from HD 63433c, a Young Mini-Neptune
We detect Lyα absorption from the escaping atmosphere of HD 63433c, a R = 2.67R ⊕, P = 20.5 day mini-Neptune orbiting a young (440 Myr) solar analog in the Ursa Major Moving Group. Using Hubble Space
A Hot Mars-sized Exoplanet Transiting an M Dwarf
We validate the planetary nature of an ultra-short-period planet orbiting the M dwarf KOI-4777. We use a combination of space-based photometry from Kepler, high-precision, near-infrared Doppler
A Multispecies Pseudoadiabat for Simulating Condensable-rich Exoplanet Atmospheres
• Physics
The Planetary Science Journal
• 2021
Central stages in the evolution of rocky, potentially habitable planets may play out under atmospheric conditions with a large inventory of nondilute condensable components. Variations in condensate
A compositional link between rocky exoplanets and their host stars
The iron fractions of rocky exoplanets and their host stars correlate with each other, but the slope is steeper than 1, indicating that planet formation processes modify the compositions of rocky planets.
Caught in the act: core-powered mass-loss predictions for observing atmospheric escape
• Physics
• 2021
Past studies have demonstrated that atmospheric escape by the core-powered mass-loss mechanism can explain a multitude of observations associated with the radius valley that separates the super-Earth
Evolution of the Exoplanet Size Distribution: Forming Large Super-Earths Over Billions of Years
The radius valley, a bifurcation in the size distribution of small, close-in exoplanets, is hypothesized to be a signature of planetary atmospheric loss. Such an evolutionary phenomenon should depend
Exosphere Modeling of Proxima b: A Case Study of Photochemical Escape with a Venus-like Atmosphere
• Yuni Lee, Chuanfei Dong
• Physics
The Astrophysical Journal
• 2021
Exoplanets orbiting M dwarfs within habitable zones are exposed to stellar environments more extreme than that terrestrial planets experience in our solar system, which can significantly impact the

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 172 REFERENCES
Identifying Atmospheres on Rocky Exoplanets through Inferred High Albedo
The upcoming launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) means that we will soon have the capability to characterize the atmospheres of rocky exoplanets. However, it is still unknown whether such
Ranges of Atmospheric Mass and Composition of Super-Earth Exoplanets
• Physics
• 2008
Terrestrial-likeexoplanets may obtainatmospheres from three primary sources:capture of nebulargases,degassing during accretion, and degassing from subsequent tectonic activity. Here we model
Variability in the super-Earth 55 Cnc e
• Physics
• 2016
Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in
Absence of a thick atmosphere on the terrestrial exoplanet LHS 3844b
Results support theoretical predictions that hot terrestrial planets orbiting small stars may not retain substantial atmospheres, and are well fitted by a bare-rock model with a low Bond albedo.
Enhanced atmospheric loss on protoplanets at the giant impact phase in the presence of oceans
• Environmental Science, Medicine
Nature
• 2005
It is suggested that remnants of the noble-gas rich proto-atmosphere survived on Venus, but not on Earth, because most of the neon must have escaped from both planets’ atmospheres later to yield the observed ratio of neon to argon.
Habitability of Exoplanet Waterworlds
• Physics
The Astrophysical Journal
• 2018
We model the evolution of ocean temperature and chemistry for rocky exoplanets with 10-1000$\times$ Earth's H$_2$O but without H$_2$, taking into account C partitioning, high-pressure ice phases, and
Atmospheric escape from the TRAPPIST-1 planets and implications for habitability
• Environmental Science, Physics
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
• 2017
The atmospheric escape rates numerically and analytically for the planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system are determined and it is shown that the outer planets are potentially likely to retain their atmospheres over billion-year timescales.
Rocky super-Earths or waterworlds: the interplay of planet migration, pebble accretion, and disc evolution
• Geology, Physics
Astronomy & Astrophysics
• 2019
Recent observations have found a valley in the size distribution of close-in super-Earths that is interpreted as a signpost that close-in super-Earths are mostly rocky in composition. However, new
Linking the evolution of terrestrial interiors and an early outgassed atmosphere to astrophysical observations
• Physics, Materials Science
Astronomy & Astrophysics
• 2019
Context. A terrestrial planet is molten during formation and may remain molten due to intense insolation or tidal forces. Observations favour the detection and characterisation of hot planets,
History of water loss and atmospheric O2 buildup on rocky exoplanets near M dwarfs
Abstract It is recently proposed that early stellar luminosity evolution of M dwarfs leads to severe water loss and the buildup of massive O 2 atmospheres on rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of