Exogenous retinoic acid during gastrulation induces cartilaginous and other craniofacial defects in Fundulus heteroclitus.

@article{Vandersea1998ExogenousRA,
  title={Exogenous retinoic acid during gastrulation induces cartilaginous and other craniofacial defects in Fundulus heteroclitus.},
  author={Mark W. Vandersea and Robert A. McCarthy and Paul R Fleming and Denice G. Smith},
  journal={The Biological bulletin},
  year={1998},
  volume={194 3},
  pages={281-96}
}
Embryonic levels of retinoic acid (RA) and the response of cells to RA are critical to the normal development of vertebrates. To understand the effects of RA signaling in Fundulus heteroclitus, we exposed embryos to a range of RA concentrations of 2 h during gastrulation. Embryos exposed to low concentrations of RA (10(-10)-10(-7) M) develop normally, whereas those exposed to higher concentrations (5 x 10(-7)-10(-4) M) develop characteristic dose-dependent defects. We describe, in detail, four… CONTINUE READING

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