Existing bitter medicines for fighting 2019‐nCoV‐associated infectious diseases

@article{Li2020ExistingBM,
  title={Existing bitter medicines for fighting 2019‐nCoV‐associated infectious diseases},
  author={Xiangqi Li and Chaobao Zhang and Lianyong Liu and Mingjun Gu},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={2020},
  volume={34},
  pages={6008 - 6016}
}
The sudden outbreak of COVID‐19 has led to more than seven thousand deaths. Unfortunately, there are no specific drugs available to cure this disease. Type 2 taste receptors (TAS2Rs) may play an important role in host defense mechanisms. Based on the idea of host‐directed therapy (HDT), we performed a negative co‐expression analysis using big data of 60 000 Affymetrix expression arrays and 5000 TCGA data sets to determine the functions of TAS2R10, which can be activated by numerous bitter… 
In-silico screening of naturally derived phytochemicals against SARS-CoV Main protease
TLDR
This study repurposes natural products including alkaloids, glucosinolates, and phenolics as potential platforms for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics and introduces phytomedicines with dual therapeutic effects against COVID-19 besides their original pharmacological effects.
The Bitter the Taste, The Better is the Medicine: Is Caffeine the Answer to COVID-19?
TLDR
Caffeine, the bitter agonists to stimulate the TAS2Rs, activating host defense mechanisms and also suppressing the cytokine storms due to its anti-inflammatory action, altogether leading to an ameliorated effects of COVID-19.
Inflammatory pathways and potential therapies for COVID-19: A mini review
TLDR
Although researches have not discovered an effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2, recent therapeutic approaches recommending the use of anti-inflammatories in combination with antivirals and some repurposed drugs for COVID-19 patients should be designed to target essential hallmarks in the CS to improve clinical outcomes.
Blood Targets of Adjuvant Drugs Against COVID19
TLDR
A basic list of drugs that include bioflavonoids, heparinoids, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, antiserotoninergics, and monoclonal antibodies against cytokines that may interact with the viral cycle are reported.
Histamine receptors and COVID-19
  • M. Ennis, K. Tiligada
  • Medicine, Biology
    Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]
  • 2020
TLDR
Clinical research into the potential benefits of H 2 receptor antagonists in managing COVID-19 inflammation began from a simple observation and now is being tested in multi-centre clinical trials.
SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion potential: narrative review
TLDR
The findings suggest that coronaviruses invade the human nervous system and cause severe neurological changes, and it is essential to identify possible complications of COVID-19 on the nervous system.
Review of Formulations and Methods for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 and other Viral Infections
TLDR
The analysis shows a strong statistical significance in favor of the use of the formulations and methods in a large patient sample even with the assumption that only 10% percent of the exposed patients get infected, which is an extremely conservative underestimate in light of the current virus spread pattern.
New values of a type 2 taste receptor TAS2R14 in thyroid cancer
TLDR
TAS2R14 regulates resveratrol transport across the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and mediates the relaxation of smooth muscle, indicating its value for the development of effective tocolytics for preterm birth management and endocrine regulatory effect.
Presence of SARS-CoV-2 and Its Entry Factors in Oral Tissues and Cells: A Systematic Review
TLDR
These results show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect a wide variety of oral tissues and cells, and that together with the theories dedicated to explaining the oral symptoms present in SARS, it provides a good scientific basis for understanding the virus infection in the oral cavity and its consequences.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 63 REFERENCES
Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV).
TLDR
Three general methods, which include existing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs using standard assays, screening of a chemical library containing many existing compounds or databases, and the redevelopment of new specific drugs based on the genome and biophysical understanding of individual coronaviruses, are used to discover the potential antiviral treatment of human pathogen coronavirus.
Antimalarial Drugs as Immune Modulators: New Mechanisms for Old Drugs.
TLDR
The chemistry of AMDs and their mechanisms of action are discussed, emphasizing how they may impact multiple pathways of innate immunity, including Toll-like receptors and the recently described cGAS-STING pathway.
Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro
TLDR
This study evaluated the antiviral efficiency of five FAD-approved drugs including ribavirin, penciclovir, nitazoxanide, nafamostat, chloroquine and two well-known broad-spectrum antiviral drugs remdesivir and favipiravir against a clinical isolate of 2019-nCoV in vitro.
Current and Future Use of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in Infectious, Immune, Neoplastic, and Neurological Diseases: A Mini-Review
TLDR
The repurposing of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is currently being examined for neurological diseases such as neurosarcoidosis, chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to corticosteroids, and primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Coronaviruses — drug discovery and therapeutic options
TLDR
The epidemiology, virology, clinical features and current treatment strategies of SARS and MERS are summarized, and the discovery and development of new virus-based and host-based therapeutic options for CoV infections are discussed.
The bitter pill: clinical drugs that activate the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14
  • A. Levit, S. Nowak, M. Niv
  • Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2014
TLDR
Despite immense chemical diversity of known TAS2R14 ligands, novel ligands and previously unknown polypharmacology of drugs were unraveled by in vitro screening of computational predictions, which enables rational repurposing of traditional and standard drugs for bitter taste signaling modulation for therapeutic indications.
Current and future developments in the treatment of virus-induced hypercytokinemia
TLDR
This review aims to explore alternative experimental strategies for treating hypercytokinemia induced by the Ebola, avian influenza and Dengue viruses; outlining their modes of action, summarizing their preclinical assessments and potential clinical applications.
...
...