Exhaustive Differentiation of Alloreactive CD8+ T Cells: Critical for Determination of Graft Acceptance or Rejection

@article{Steger2008ExhaustiveDO,
  title={Exhaustive Differentiation of Alloreactive CD8+ T Cells: Critical for Determination of Graft Acceptance or Rejection},
  author={Ulrich Steger and Christian Denecke and Birgit Sawitzki and Mahzuz Karim and Nick D. Jones and Kathryn J. Wood},
  journal={Transplantation},
  year={2008},
  volume={85},
  pages={1339-1347}
}
Background. The precise role that CD8+ T cells play in the rejection and acceptance of different types of allograft is unclear and has been shown to vary between donor–recipient combinations. Methods. The response of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells reactive to the donor alloantigen H2Kb was examined after transplantation of H2Kb+ liver, kidney, and heart grafts in mice. Results. After transfer of 6×106 alloreactive CD8+ T cells to T-cell depleted syngeneic mice spontaneous long-term… 
Differential migration of passenger leukocytes and rapid deletion of naive alloreactive CD8 T cells after mouse liver transplantation
  • Szun S. Tay, B. Lu, P. Bertolino
  • Biology, Medicine
    Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • 2013
TLDR
A mouse liver transplant model is developed in which PLs, recipient cells, and a reporter population of transgenic CD8 T cells specific for the graft could be easily distinguished and quantified in allografts and recipient organs by flow cytometry and shows that alloreactive CD9 T cells are deleted more rapidly than initially reported.
Unique aspects of rejection and tolerance in liver transplantation.
TLDR
The low incidence of hyperacute or antibody-mediated rejection in liver might be linked to the infrequency of chronic rejection of liver transplants and the availability of better immune monitoring could help develop strategies to recognize tolerance and reduce rejection.
Deletion of donor-reactive T cell clones following human liver transplantation
TLDR
The results suggest that partial deletion of donor-reactive T cell clones may be a consequence of liver transplantation and does not correlate with success or failure of early immunosuppression withdrawal, demonstrating an impact of the liver allograft after accounting for repertoire turnover.
Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation
  • A. Sánchez‐Fueyo, J. Markmann
  • Medicine, Biology
    American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
  • 2016
TLDR
Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance and the extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts remains a fertile area for investigation.
T-cell exhaustion in allograft rejection and tolerance
TLDR
Preventing or reversing T-cell exhaustion may lead to prevention of transplant tolerance or triggering of rejection; therefore, caution should be exercised in the use of agents blocking inhibitory receptors for the treatment of chronic viral infections or tumors in transplant recipients.
Liver Transplant Tolerance and Its Application to the Clinic: Can We Exploit the High Dose Effect?
TLDR
The growing body of evidence is outlined, from experimental models and clinical transplantation, which supports a role for large tissue mass and high antigen dose in the induction of tolerance, and a novel gene therapy approach to exploit this dose effect and induce antigen-specific tolerance robust enough to overcome a primed T cell memory response.
Long-Term Signs of T Cell and Myeloid Cell Activation After Intestinal Transplantation With Cellular Rejections Contributing to Further Increase of CD16+ Cell Subsets
The intestine mediates a delicate balance between tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses. The continuous pathogen encounter might also augment immune cell responses contributing to
Regulatory T‐cell therapy in liver transplantation
TLDR
The evidence from drug withdrawal trials of spontaneous operational tolerance in liver transplantation, the unique immunology of the hepatic microenvironment, the evidence for the use of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells as a tolerance inducing therapy in liver transplants and the challenges in producing clinical grade Treg cell products are summarized.
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