The effect of different training modes on skeletal muscle microvascular density and endothelial enzymes controlling NO availability.
Exercise training is considered to be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of insulin insensitivity, and much of the effect occurs in muscle. We have recently shown that capillary recruitment by insulin in vivo is associated with and may facilitate insulin action to increase muscle glucose uptake. In the present study, we examined the effect of 14 days of voluntary exercise training on euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamped (10 mU. min(-1). kg(-1) for 2 h), anesthetized rats. Whole-body glucose infusion rate (GIR), hindleg glucose uptake, femoral blood flow (FBF), vascular resistance, and capillary recruitment, as measured by metabolism of infused 1-methylxanthine (1-MX), were assessed. In sedentary animals, insulin caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in FBF (1.6-fold) and capillary recruitment (1.7-fold) but a significant decrease in vascular resistance. In addition, hindleg glucose uptake was increased (4.3-fold). Exercise training increased insulin-mediated GIR (24%), hindleg glucose uptake (93%), and capillary recruitment (62%) relative to sedentary animals. Neither capillary density nor total xanthine-oxidase activity in skeletal muscle were increased as a result of the training regimen used. We concluded that exercise training improves insulin-mediated increases in capillary recruitment in combination with augmented muscle glucose uptake. Increased insulin-mediated glucose uptake may in part result from the improved hemodynamic control attributable to exercise training.