Exercise promotes the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the action of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate

@article{Sleiman2016ExercisePT,
  title={Exercise promotes the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the action of the ketone body $\beta$-hydroxybutyrate},
  author={Sama F. Sleiman and Jeffrey Henry and Rami Al-Haddad and Lauretta El Hayek and Edwina Abou Haidar and Thomas Stringer and Devyani Ulja and Saravanan S Karuppagounder and Edward B. Holson and Rajiv R Ratan and Ipe Ninan and Moses V Chao},
  journal={eLife},
  year={2016},
  volume={5}
}
Exercise induces beneficial responses in the brain, which is accompanied by an increase in BDNF, a trophic factor associated with cognitive improvement and the alleviation of depression and anxiety. However, the exact mechanisms whereby physical exercise produces an induction in brain Bdnf gene expression are not well understood. While pharmacological doses of HDAC inhibitors exert positive effects on Bdnf gene transcription, the inhibitors represent small molecules that do not occur in vivo… 
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    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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References

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Exercise induces hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1α/FNDC5 pathway.
New insights into BDNF function in depression and anxiety
TLDR
BDNF may be a target of antidepressants, but not the sole mediator of depression or anxiety, and as the precursor proBDNF and the mature protein mBDNF can elicit opposite effects on cellular functions, the impact of proBD NF and its cleavage on mood should be considered.
Evidence for a release of brain‐derived neurotrophic factor from the brain during exercise
TLDR
It is suggested that the brain is a major but not the sole contributor to circulating BDNF, and the importance of the cortex and hippocampus as a source for plasma BDNF becomes even more prominent in response to exercise.
A Neurotrophic Model for Stress-Related Mood Disorders
Enhancement of Neurotransmitter Release Induced by Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons
TLDR
The results demonstrate that BDNF enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission at a presynaptic locus and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires the release of Ca2+ from IP3-gated stores.
Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition
TLDR
An association between CREB and BDNF expression and cognitive function, such that animals who were the fastest learners and had the best recall showed the highest expression of BDNF and associated CREB mRNA levels, suggest a functional role for CREB under the control ofBDNF in mediating the exercise‐induced enhancement in learning and memory.
Involvement of an Upstream Stimulatory Factor as Well as cAMP-responsive Element-binding Protein in the Activation of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Promoter I*
TLDR
Findings support that not only CREB but also USF1/USF2 contributes to Ca2+ signal-mediated activation of BDNF-PI through the recognition of an overlapping CRE and USF-binding element.
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