Exercise-induced euphoria and anxiolysis do not depend on endogenous opioids in humans

@article{Siebers2021ExerciseinducedEA,
  title={Exercise-induced euphoria and anxiolysis do not depend on endogenous opioids in humans},
  author={Michael Siebers and Sarah Biedermann and Laura Bindila and Beat Lutz and Johannes Fuss},
  journal={Psychoneuroendocrinology},
  year={2021},
  volume={126}
}

Catching the runner’s high: Anxiety and the endocannabinoid system

The effects of exercise as it pertains to the endocannabinoid system is peaking as use of cannabis and hemp-based products reaches an all-time high.

Do Endocannabinoids Cause the Runner's High? Evidence and Open Questions.

This systematic review sampled all data from clinical trials in humans on eCB levels following exercise from the discovery of eCBs until April 20, 2021 to provide recommendations on how endocannabinoid release is most likely to occur under laboratory conditions.

Dietary PUFAs and Exercise Dynamic Actions on Endocannabinoids in Brain: Consequences for Neural Plasticity and Neuroinflammation

The role of PUFAs in eCB biosynthesis is described, the ECS and OxLs in neuroinflammation are discussed, the evidence for exercise effects on eCBs is highlighted, and eCB and BDNF actions on neuroplasticity are described.

Can Cycling Be Addictive? A Qualitative Interview Study Among Amateur Female Cyclists

Exercise and healthy eating are proposed as a recommended lifestyle by the World Health Organization with several positive outcomes, including a decrease in pathologies such as diabetes and reduction

“Death drive” scientifically reconsidered: Not a drive but a collection of trauma-induced auto-addictive diseases

Over the last 102 years, a lot of discussion was being held about the psychoanalytic conception of the “death drive,” but still with inconclusive results. In this paper, we start with a brief review

Examining the Effect of Increased Aerobic Exercise in Moderately Fit Adults on Psychological State and Cognitive Function

Regular physical exercise can decrease the risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, increase life expectancy, and promote psychological health and neurocognitive functioning.

Endocannabinoid System Modulation of Flow States: A Theoretical Model and Review

Conor B. Murphy1, 2*, Steven Kotler1, Will Kleidon3, Michael Mannino1, 4, Taylor Kuhn5, Rian Doris1, and Adolfo D. Caballero1 1 Flow Research Collective, NV, United States of America. 2 King’s

Masturbation in the Animal Kingdom.

It is proposed that the widespread prevalence of masturbation in the animal kingdom may be better explained by viewing masturbation as a primarily self-reinforcing behavior that promotes pleasure both in human and in nonhuman species.

Dopamine D2/3-receptor availability and its association with autonomous motivation to exercise in older adults: An exploratory [11C]-raclopride study

Background Autonomous motivation to exercise occurs when the activity is voluntary and with a perceived inherent satisfaction from the activity itself. It has been suggested that autonomous

The anti-inflammatory effect of bacterial short chain fatty acids is partially mediated by endocannabinoids

The data show that the anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs are partly mediated by the EC system suggesting that there may be other pathways involved in the modulation of the immune system via the gut microbiome.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 52 REFERENCES

A runner’s high depends on cannabinoid receptors in mice

It is demonstrated that wheel running increases endocannabinoids and reduces both anxiety and sensation of pain in mice and shows for the first time to the authors' knowledge that cannabinoid receptors are crucial for main aspects of a runner’s high.

Endocannabinoid and Opioid System Interactions in Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia

The results suggest that the opioid system may not be the primary system involved in exercise-induced hypoalgesia and that 2-AG and 2-OG could contribute to nonopioid exercise- induced hypoAlgesia.

Endorphins and mood changes in long-distance running.

The failure of naloxone to reverse the running-associated mood shift indicates that endorphins are not involved, and the authors discuss the possible physiologic role of endorphin in light of these and other findings.

Mechanisms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia.

The runner's high: opioidergic mechanisms in the human brain.

The level of euphoria was significantly increased after running and was inversely correlated with opioid binding in prefrontal/orbitofrontal cortices, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, parainsular cortex, and temporoparietal regions, which supports the "opioid theory" of the runner's high.

Influence of endogenous opioids on the response of selected hormones to exercise in humans.

Exercise-induced activation of the endogenous opioid system may serve to regulate the secretion of several important hormones (i.e., epinephrine) during and after exercise.

Wired to run: exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling in humans and cursorial mammals with implications for the ‘runner’s high’

A neurobiological reward for endurance exercise may explain why humans and other cursorial mammals habitually engage in aerobic exercise despite the higher associated energy costs and injury risks, and why non-cursorial mammals avoid such locomotor behaviors.

The Effects of Acute Exercise on Mood, Cognition, Neurophysiology, and Neurochemical Pathways: A Review

The cognitive and behavioral changes that occur with acute exercise in humans and animal model studies documenting the wide range of neurophysiological and neurochemical alterations that occur after a single bout of exercise are summarized.

Effects of treadmill running on plasma beta-endorphin, corticotropin, and cortisol levels in male and female 10K runners

Data indicate that gender and training do not affect ACTH and cortisol concentrations before, during, and after 30 min of treadmill running at 80% of maximum heart rate, whereas B-EN concentrations are higher in males under these conditions.
...