Exercise and associated dietary extremes impact on gut microbial diversity

@article{Clarke2014ExerciseAA,
  title={Exercise and associated dietary extremes impact on gut microbial diversity},
  author={Siobhan F. Clarke and Eileen F. Murphy and {\'O}rla O’Sullivan and Alice Lucey and Maggie Humphreys and Aileen Hogan and Paula A Hayes and Maeve O'Reilly and Ian B. Jeffery and Ruth Wood-Martin and David M. Kerins and Eamonn M M Quigley and Reynolds Paul Ross and Paul W. O’Toole and Michael G. Molloy and {\'E}anna Cian Falvey and Fergus Shanahan and Paul D. Cotter},
  journal={Gut},
  year={2014},
  volume={63},
  pages={1913 - 1920}
}
Objective The commensal microbiota, host immunity and metabolism participate in a signalling network, with diet influencing each component of this triad. In addition to diet, many elements of a modern lifestyle influence the gut microbiota but the degree to which exercise affects this population is unclear. Therefore, we explored exercise and diet for their impact on the gut microbiota. Design Since extremes of exercise often accompany extremes of diet, we addressed the issue by studying… 
TITLE: Exercise and the microbiota
TLDR
The relationship between extreme levels of exercise, associated dietary habits and gut microbiota composition, and potential mechanisms by which exercise may exert a direct or indirect influence on gut microbiota are assessed.
Interplay Between Exercise and Gut Microbiome in the Context of Human Health and Performance
TLDR
Taking into account the microbiota composition and its metabolic contribution to human host health could help in monitoring and modulating athletes' health and performance, and an integrated approach should help in the design of microbiome-based solutions for health or performance.
Gut microbiota: Tackling the effects of diet and exercise on the gut microbiota
  • K. Ray
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &Hepatology
  • 2014
TLDR
More work is needed to prove that exercise has a direct effect on the gut microbiota and a causative role in changing the diversity of these microbes, as well as separate out the effects of exercise from the dietary changes that often accompany a healthy lifestyle in general.
A Prospective Metagenomic and Metabolomic Analysis of the Impact of Exercise and/or Whey Protein Supplementation on the Gut Microbiome of Sedentary Adults
TLDR
Results indicate that improved body composition with exercise is not dependent on major changes in the diversity of microbial populations in the gut, andMetagenomics- and metabolomics-based assessments demonstrated modest changes in gut microbial composition and function following increases in physical activity.
Implications of the Gut Microbiome in Sports.
TLDR
Diet and exercise play very important roles in the composition of the gut microbiota in the athletic and nonathletic individual, and there is evidence that suggests overall health benefits.
Exercise, Nutrition and Gut Microbiota: Possible Links and Consequences
TLDR
The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the effects of physical exercise associated with diet on the characteristics of the intestinal microbiota.
Mutual Interactions among Exercise, Sport Supplements and Microbiota
TLDR
Microbiota could be an important tool to improve overall general health, performance, and energy availability while controlling inflammation and redox levels in endurance athletes.
The gut microbiota, dietary extremes and exercise
TLDR
The GI tract is colonised by trillions of bacteria in a complex community collectively referred to as the gut microbiota, and the composition of the diet the authors consume is known to affect the microbial community composition.
The athletic gut microbiota
TLDR
Current knowledge of the athletic gut microbiota and the factors that shape it are summarized to promote a more “health-associated” gut microbiota, including a higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species, increased microbial diversity, functional metabolic capacity, and microbial-associated metabolites.
The microbiome of professional athletes differs from that of more sedentary subjects in composition and particularly at the functional metabolic level
TLDR
Differences in faecal microbiota between athletes and sedentary controls show even greater separation at the metagenomic and metabolomic than at compositional levels and provide added insight into the diet–exercise–gut microbiota paradigm.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 71 REFERENCES
Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers
TLDR
The authors' classifications based on variation in the gut microbiome identify subsets of individuals in the general white adult population who may be at increased risk of progressing to adiposity-associated co-morbidities.
Gut Microbiota Composition in Male Rat Models under Different Nutritional Status and Physical Activity and Its Association with Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Levels
TLDR
This study highlights the associations between gut microbiota and appetite-regulating hormones that may be important in terms of satiety and host metabolism and finds a significant positive correlation between the quantity of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus and serum leptin levels.
Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly
TLDR
The data support a relationship between diet, microbiota and health status, and indicate a role for diet-driven microbiota alterations in varying rates of health decline upon ageing.
Impact of dietary protein on microbiota composition and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets in relation to gut health: a review.
TLDR
It seems to be a promising approach to support growth and metabolic activity of the beneficial microbiota by developing suitable feeding strategies, and a reduction of dietary CP content and dietary supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates have proven to successfully suppress protein fermentation.
Linking Long-Term Dietary Patterns with Gut Microbial Enterotypes
TLDR
Alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) versus carbohydrates (Prevotella) and other enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroide and Prevotella.
A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes
TLDR
MGWAS analysis showed that patients with type 2 diabetes were characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis, a decrease in the abundance of some universal butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, as well as an enrichment of other microbial functions conferring sulphate reduction and oxidative stress resistance.
[Gut microbiota in health and disease].
Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity
TLDR
Substantial insight is provided into the intricate mechanisms of bacterial regulation of the cross-talk between the host and gut microbiota and provides a rationale for the development of a treatment that uses this human mucus colonizer for the prevention or treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.
...
...