Exercise-Induced Muscle Cramp

@article{Bentley1996ExerciseInducedMC,
  title={Exercise-Induced Muscle Cramp},
  author={Stewart W. Bentley},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={1996},
  volume={21},
  pages={409-420}
}
  • S. Bentley
  • Published 1 June 1996
  • Biology
  • Sports Medicine
SummaryMuscle cramp is a common, painful, physiological disturbance of skeletal muscle. Many athletes are regularly frustrated by exercise-induced muscle cramp yet the pathogenesis remains speculative with little scientific research on the subject. This has resulted in a perpetuation of myths as to the cause and treatment of it. There is a need for scientifically based protocols for the management of athletes who suffer exercise-related muscle cramp. This article reviews the literature and… 
Exercise-associated muscle cramps
TLDR
This article focuses on EAMC, and excludes muscle cramping in smooth muscle, cramping at rest and cramping associated with any underlying disease or drugs.
Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps
TLDR
Dehydration/electrolyte and neuromuscular causes are the most widely discussed theories for the cause of EAMC; however, strong experimental evidence for either theory is lacking.
Exertional heat cramps: recovery and return to play.
TLDR
Sweat sodium, chloride, and fluid losses incurred during training and competition need to be closely matched by daily salt and fluid intake, in order to prevent an excessive sodium deficit, maintain sufficient fluid balance, and avoid exertional heat cramps.
EFFECT OF MUSCLE FATIGUE AND DEHYDRATION ON EXERCISE INDUCED MUSCLE CRAMP (EIMC)
TLDR
The results suggest that the susceptibility to EIMC would be estimated by using the tests, and dehydration is associated with E IMC, but muscle fatigue does not seem to be a direct factor for EIMc.
Active Nutrient acute and active for the prevention of calf muscle cramps
TLDR
The first results bring to an optimistic evaluation to prevent cramps by the intake of sodium citrate and sodium carbonate, which has to be affirmed in a controlled clinical trial.
Comparison of Sweat Rates and Sweat Electrolyte Concentrations in Collegiate Male and Female Athletes With and Without a History of Cramping
TLDR
The cramping group displayed trend toward a greater sweat rate than the non-cramping group, supporting the electrolyte-dehydration theory, and a similar sweat sodium concentration and lack of statistical significance challenge this conclusion.
Non-drug therapies for lower limb muscle cramps.
TLDR
There is limited evidence on which to base clinical decisions regarding the use of non-drug therapies for the treatment of lower limb muscle cramp, and there is an urgent need to carefully evaluate many of the commonly recommended and emerging non- drug therapies in well designed randomised controlled trials.
Influence of Hydration and Electrolyte Supplementation on Incidence and Time to Onset of Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps.
TLDR
Consumption of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage before and during exercise in a hot environment may delay the onset of EAMCs, thereby allowing participants to exercise longer, and it appears that dehydration and electrolyte loss are not the sole causes of E AMCs.
Some manoeuvres for releasing the hypertonus of spastic and shortened muscles.
TLDR
Some physiotherapeutic techniques and manoeuvres releasing the increased tone of spastic and shortened muscles are described, and pressure stimulation of the particular active zones is demonstrated.
dehydration or electrolyte depletion ? altered neuromuscular control , − − ( EAMC ) Cause of Exercise Associated Muscle Cramps
TLDR
Current scientific evidence in support of the ''electrolyte depletion'' and ''dehydration'' hypotheses for the aetiology of EAMC comes mainly from anecdotal clinical observations, case series totalling 18 cases, and one small case–control study, which does not support these hypotheses.
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TLDR
It is hypothesized that EAMC is caused by sustained abnormal spinal reflex activity which appears to be secondary to muscle fatigue, and local muscle fatigue is therefore responsible for increased muscle spindle afferent and decreased Golgi tendon organ afferent activity.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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