Exercise: Putting Action into Our Epigenome

@article{Denham2013ExercisePA,
  title={Exercise: Putting Action into Our Epigenome},
  author={Joshua Denham and Francine Z. Marques and Brendan J. O’Brien and Fadi J. Charchar},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={2013},
  volume={44},
  pages={189-209}
}
Most human phenotypes are influenced by a combination of genomic and environmental factors. Engaging in regular physical exercise prevents many chronic diseases, decreases mortality risk and increases longevity. However, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The modulating effect of physical (aerobic and resistance) exercise on gene expression has been known for some time now and has provided us with an understanding of the biological responses to physical exercise. Emerging research… 
Physical Exercise and Epigenetic Modifications in Skeletal Muscle
TLDR
Current knowledge on epigenetic changes induced in exercising skeletal muscle, their target genes, and resulting phenotypic changes are highlighted and the question of whether epigenetic modifications might serve as markers for the design and management of optimized and individualized training protocols, as prognostic tools to predict training adaptation, or even as targets for the designs of “exercise mimics” is raised.
Exercise and epigenetic inheritance of disease risk
TLDR
The aims of this review are to provide an update on the expanding field of exercise epigenetics, offer an overview of data on intergenerational/transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of disease by environmental insults, and outline potential mechanisms and avenues for future work on epigenetics through exercise.
Genetic and epigenetic sex-specific adaptations to endurance exercise
TLDR
This review will cover the recent findings of sex-specific genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression studies, address the gaps in the field, and offer recommendations for future research.
Exercise Training and Epigenetic Regulation: Multilevel Modification and Regulation of Gene Expression.
TLDR
The relationship of epigenetic modulations and their intimal relationship with acute and chronic effect of exercise training is clarified, concentrating on skeletal muscle, heart and vascular responses, that are the most responsive systems against to exercise training and play crucial role on physical performance and improvement of health state.
Changes in the leukocyte methylome and its effect on cardiovascular-related genes after exercise.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that exercise alters DNA methylation in circulating blood cells in microRNA and protein-coding genes associated with cardiovascular physiology, causing a cascade effect on the expression of the mature microRNA involved in cardiovascular function.
Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Exercise Response
TLDR
This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the response of blood c-miRNAs profiles to different modes of exercise and to highlight their potential application as a novel class of biomarkers of physical performance capacity and training adaptation.
Precision Physical Therapy: Exercise, the Epigenome, and the Heritability of Environmentally Modified Traits
TLDR
The emerging body of knowledge supporting epigenetic adaptations to exercise in humans, including the intriguing possibility that these environmentally modified traits could be passed down to offspring, is summarized here.
Epigenetic effects of physical activity in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease
Epigenetics in Exercise
TLDR
Epigenetic factors, including DNA methylations, histone modifications, noncoding RNAs like lncRNA or microRNAs, can help to explain how cells with identical DNA can differentiate into different cell types with different phenotypes.
Exercise training and DNA methylation in humans
TLDR
It is concluded that both acute and chronic exercises significantly impact DNA methylation, in a highly tissue‐ and gene‐specific manner.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 208 REFERENCES
Epigenetic regulation on gene expression induced by physical exercise.
TLDR
The known epigenetic modifications induced by physical exercise in various physiological systems and pathologies are reviewed, and their potential clinical implications are discussed.
A Six Months Exercise Intervention Influences the Genome-wide DNA Methylation Pattern in Human Adipose Tissue
TLDR
The genome-wide pattern of DNA methylation in human adipose tissue from 23 healthy men, with a previous low level of physical activity, before and after a six months exercise intervention is described, potentially affecting adipocyte metabolism.
Effects of Exercise on microRNA Expression in Young Males Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
TLDR
A commonly occurring physiologic perturbation, brief heavy exercise, changes microRNA profiles in PBMCs, many of which are related to inflammatory processes, and suggests that exercise differentially influences microRNAs in leukocyte subtypes.
Acute exercise remodels promoter methylation in human skeletal muscle.
Evidence for microRNA involvement in exercise-associated neutrophil gene expression changes.
TLDR
The hypothesis that exercise-associated changes in neutrophil miRNA expression play a role in neutophil gene expression in response to physical activity is supported.
Exercise‐induced histone modifications in human skeletal muscle
TLDR
Examination of the regulation of the class IIa histone deacetylases found that HDAC4 and 5 were exported from the nucleus during exercise, thereby removing their transcriptional repressive function and delineate a signalling pathway that might mediate skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise.
Physical exercise as an epigenetic modulator: Eustress, the "positive stress" as an effector of gene expression.
TLDR
The idea that physical exercise, especially long-term repetitive strenuous exercise, positively affects health, reduces the aging process, and decreases the incidence of cancer through induced stress and epigenetic mechanisms is put forward.
Exercise effects on methylation of ASC gene.
TLDR
Chronic moderate exercise appears to attenuate the age-dependent decrease in ASC methylation, implying suppression of excess pro-inflammatory cytokines through reduction of ASC expression.
Cardiovascular Effects of Exercise Training: Molecular Mechanisms
TLDR
The aim of this review is to provide a bird's-eye view on what is known and unknown about the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in mediating exercise-induced cardiovascular effects and to present key data on exercise effects on cardiac and vascular function.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...