Exemplary and surrogate models: two modes of representation in biology.

  title={Exemplary and surrogate models: two modes of representation in biology.},
  author={Jessica A Bolker},
  journal={Perspectives in biology and medicine},
  volume={52 4},
Biologists use models in two distinct ways that have not been clearly articulated. A model may be used either as an exemplar of a larger group, or as a surrogate for a specific target. Zebrafish serve as an exemplary model of vertebrates in developmental biology; rodents are both exemplary vertebrates and specific surrogates for humans in biomedical research. The distinction between exemplary and surrogate models is important, because the criteria for and implications of model choice diverge in… CONTINUE READING

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