Recent studies have shown that impairment in executive function (EF) is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the neuroanatomic basis of executive impairment in patients with aMCI remains unclear. In this study, multiple regression voxel-based morphometry analyses were used to examine the relationship between regional gray matter volumes and EF performance in 50 patients with aMCI and 48 healthy age-matched controls. The core EF components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching, based on the EF model of Miyake et al) were accessed with computerized tasks. Atrophic brain areas related to decreases in the three EF components in patients with aMCI were located in the frontal and temporal cortices. Within the frontal cortex, the brain region related to response inhibition was identified in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Brain regions related to working memory were located in the left anterior cingulate gyrus, left premotor cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus, and brain regions related to task shifting were distributed in the bilateral frontal cortex. Atrophy in the right inferior frontal gyrus was most closely associated with a decrease in all three EF components in patients with aMCI. Our data, from the perspective of brain morphology, contribute to a better understanding of the role of these brain areas in the neural network of EF.