Executive Functions after Age 5: Changes and Correlates.

  title={Executive Functions after Age 5: Changes and Correlates.},
  author={John R. Best and Patricia H. Miller and Lara L. Jones},
  journal={Developmental review : DR},
  volume={29 3},
Developmental changes in executive functions during adolescence: A study of inhibition, shifting, and working memory.
Investigating whether EFs continue to develop during the later stages of adolescence found age was found to be a significant predictor of pupils' performance on the inhibition but not the shifting or working memory tasks, suggesting different developmental trajectories for the three EF components.
A developmental perspective on executive function.
The development of the foundational components of EF-inhibition, working memory, and shifting are outlined and research needed for constructing a developmental framework encompassing early childhood through adolescence is suggested.
Assessing Executive Functions in Preschoolers Using Shape School Task
The results suggest that EFs explain to a greater extent performance on verbal and performance tasks and provide further information to support research that considers preschool age to be a crucial period for the development of EFs and their relationship with other cognitive processes.
Developmental trajectories and correlates of executive function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder
Executive function (EF; set of high-order cognitive skills) is a salient neuropsychological impairment present in several samples of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and
Infant attention and early childhood executive function.
Infant short lookers exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence), discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention.
The Role of Executive Functions for Motor Performance in Preschool Children as Compared to Young Adults
It appears that executive functions contribute more to successful motor performance in preschool years than in young adulthood, highlighting the importance of considering the developmental stage and/or the proficiency level of the individual when examining cognitive–motor interactions or when drawing implications for childhood cognitive-motor training and interventions.


Assessment and Development of Executive Function (EF) During Childhood
  • P. Anderson
  • Psychology
    Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence
  • 2002
The ecological validity of EF tests and neuropsychological assessment procedures are examined, and adjunct methods of measurement are presented to enable a more comprehensive and valid assessment of EF.
Measuring executive functions in childhood: Problems and solutions?
In this review we outline some of the current issues surrounding the measurement of executive function (EF) in children. Beginning with the theoretical background to the concept of EF we then review
Executive Functions in Children Aged 6 to 13: A Dimensional and Developmental Study
Age-dependent changes in children's performance on all 3 dimensions were demonstrated, with 3 particularly active stages of maturation: early childhood, middle childhood, and during early adolescence.
Greater Attention Problems During Childhood Predict Poorer Executive Functioning in Late Adolescence
Results support the hypothesis that attention problems primarily reflect difficulties with response inhibition, and it was the initial levels of problems, rather than their changes across time, that predicted later EFs.
Executive function in preschoolers: a review using an integrative framework.
The authors focus on 3 EF components: working memory, response inhibition, and shifting and conceive of the central executive as a central attention system that is involved in all EF component operations.
Quantitative analyses of schooling effects on executive function in young children.
Schooling effects were both task and age-dependent supporting the conclusion that the proper use of EF measures with children in this age range depends upon consideration of factors beyond that usually depicted in net-effect models.
Executive function and theory of mind: Predictive relations from ages 2 to 4.
The findings provide only partial support for the view that ToM is a prerequisite for EF but strongerSupport for the proposal that EF facilitates children's performance on ToM tasks is provided.
Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: I. Latent structure.
In typically developing preschool children, tasks conceptualized as indexes of working memory and inhibitory control in fact measured a single cognitive ability, despite surface differences between task characteristics.