Excretion and transformation of [14C] penitrem mycotoxins in sheep bile.

@article{Laws1987ExcretionAT,
  title={Excretion and transformation of [14C] penitrem mycotoxins in sheep bile.},
  author={Ian Laws and Peter Mantle and B. L. Smith},
  journal={Research in veterinary science},
  year={1987},
  volume={43 2},
  pages={
          199-202
        }
}
Oxidative transformation of paxilline in sheep bile.
TLDR
The feasibility that analogous oxidative transformation of indole-diterpenoid tremorgenic mycotoxins may occur, increasing polarity advantageously to xenobiotic elimination, during biliary elimination from agricultural ruminants in the field, is recognized.
Penitrem A and analogues: toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics including mechanism of action and clinical significance
TLDR
The clinical symptoms of acute penitrem A intoxication include classical signs of neurotoxicity, such as tremors, convulsions, ataxia and nystagmus, which range from total recovery to death, depending mainly on the level of exposure.
THE ROLE OF THE RYEGRASS ENDOPHYTE (ACREMONIUM LOLIAE) IN RUMINANT NEUROTOXICOSIS
The neurotoxicosis ryegrass staggers causes difficulties in ruminant management particularly in parts of New Zealand but also occasionally in other parts of the world where ryegrass is the dominant
Tremorgenic mycotoxicosis in four dogs from a single household.
TLDR
Treatment goals following tremorgenic mycotoxin ingestion include minimizing absorption, controlling tremors and seizures with methocarbamol and pentobarbital sodium administration, and providing supportive care.
The presence of Penicillium and Penicillium mycotoxins in food wastes.
Poisons affecting the neurological system
  • N. Bates
  • Medicine
    The Veterinary Nurse
  • 2020
TLDR
Control of seizure activity is a priority, while intravenous lipid emulsion may also be useful, and care should be taken when considering the use of emetics since there is a risk of aspiration in seizuring animals.
Liver function and ryegrass staggers.
  • E. L. Piper
  • Biology, Medicine
    New Zealand veterinary journal
  • 1989

References

SHOWING 1-7 OF 7 REFERENCES
Metabolism of verruculogen in rats
TLDR
In isolated liver perfusion, [14C]verruculogen was rapidly taken up by the liver and metabolized completely, principally to the related tremorgen TR-2 but also to a desoxy derivative of verruculogens.
Biosynthesis of penitrems and roquefortine by Penicillium crustosum
TLDR
Roquefortine and the penitrems were biosynthesised concurrently at an approximately equimolar rate by Penicillium crustosum after growth and sporulation, indicating considerable metabolic flux, though generally directed towards penitrem A as the end product and suggesting a metabolic grid for thepenitrem metabolites.
Clinical studies on tremorgenic mycotoxicoses in sheep
The clinical responses of sheep dosed orally over seven to 14 weeks with the dried mycelium of a soil-borne mould containing the tremorgenic mycotoxin penitrem A are described. An initial tremoring
Intoxication of dogs with the mycotoxin penitrem A.
Mycotoxicosis caused by ingestion of moldy cream cheese was suspected in two dogs with severe muscle tremors and generalized seizures. Penicillium crustosum and its toxin, penitrem A, were isolated