Excited states in variational Monte Carlo using a penalty method.

@article{Pathak2021ExcitedSI,
  title={Excited states in variational Monte Carlo using a penalty method.},
  author={Shivesh Pathak and Brian Busemeyer and Jo{\~a}o N B Rodrigues and Lucas K. Wagner},
  journal={The Journal of chemical physics},
  year={2021},
  volume={154 3},
  pages={
          034101
        }
}
In this article, the authors present a technique using variational Monte Carlo to solve for excited states of electronic systems. This technique is based on enforcing orthogonality to lower energy states, which results in a simple variational principle for the excited states. Energy optimization is then used to solve for the excited states. This technique is applied to the well-characterized benzene molecule, in which ∼10 000 parameters are optimized for the first 12 excited states. Agreement… 
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